Primary Sources


Child and Family Services Act R.S.O. 1990, c. C.11.

Criminal Code of Canada R.S. 1985, c. C. 46

R. v. Batisse [2009] O.J. No. 452 (Ont. C.A.).

R. v. Brooks [2008] N.S.J. No. 519.

R. v. Elias [2009] Y.J. No. 83; 2009 YKTC 59.

R. v. MacDougall [2009] M.J. No. 400; 2009 MBQB 299.

R. v. McLeod [2009] S.J. No. 497; 2009 SKCA 93 (Sask. C.A.).


Government Documents & Reports

Correctional Service of Canada, Creating Choices: Report of the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women, Chapter III “The Voices of Others Who Care”, online: CSC <>.

Correctional Service of Canada, “Programs and Activities Intended for Inmates and Parolees”, online: CSC <>.

Hamilton, A.C. & Sinclair, C.M. Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba, Vol. 1, The Justice System and Aboriginal People (Winnipeg: Queen’s Printer, 1991).

Kong, Rebecca & AuCoin, Kathy. “Female Offenders in Canada”, online: Statistics Canada <>.

Ministry of Community Safety & Correctional Services, A Safe, Strong, Secure Ontario: Strategic Plan 2008-2013 (October 2008), online: MCSCS <>.

Statistics Canada, “Custodial Remand in Canada 1986/87 to 2000/01” in Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics by Sara Johnson (Catalogue no. 85-002-XIE, Vol. 23, no. 7, 2003), online: <>.

Trevethan, S., S. Auger, J-P. Moore, M. MacDonald, and J. Sinclair. The Effect of Family Disruption on Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Inmates (Ottawa: Correctional Services of Canada, Department of Justice & Assembly of First Nations September 2001), online CSC: <>.


Other Secondary Sources

Abstract of Fournier, Julie J.. L’experience des meres justiciables: Leurs perceptions de leur role de mere lors de l’incarceration et du retour en communaute.  Master’s Thesis, (Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2000), online: Correctional Service of Canada <>.

Durham Children’s Aid Society, “What is Foster Care”, online: Durham Children’s Aid Society <>.

Elizabeth Fry Society of Toronto (March 2008) “Imprisonment but not Sentenced” 24:2 Out for Change in “Women in provincial institutions”, online: Elizabeth Fry Society of Toronto <>.

John Howard Society of Ontario, Remand in Ontario: A Backgrounder (September 2005), online: John Howard Society of Ontario <>.

Native Women’s Association of Canada, “Aboriginal Women and the Legal Justice System in Canada,” prepared for the National Aboriginal Women’s Summit June 20-22, 2007 in Corner Brook, NL, online: NWAC <>.

Ontario Women’s Justice Network, “Women in Provincial Institutions”, online: Ontario Women’s Justice Network <>.

Sasaki, Lauren. “The Contribution of the Child Welfare System to the Deterioration of Aboriginal Culture and the Need for Aboriginal Control”, 1 Aboriginal Women’s Law Journal (Ottawa: Native Women’s Association of Canada, 1994).

Schiendein, Lee Anne. “The Aboriginal Healing Lodge: A First Step” (1992), 56 Sask. L. Rev.427 (QL).

Turpel, Mary Ellen. “Critical Perspectives on Family Law: Race, Gender Class – Home/Land” (1991) 10 Can. J. Fam. L. 17-40 (QL).

Vis-Dunbar, Megan. “Child Apprehensions in BC Correctional Facilities” Presented to the Board of the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association (November 10, 2008), online: BCCLA <>.