[1] Thomas Bancroft, cited by Samuel Chew. Pilgrimages of Life, New Haven Conn. Yael University Press. (1962) see n. 77 (xxiii).

[2] Robert N. Butler. Why survive? Being old in America. New York: Harper & Row. (1975).

[3] Amanda Phelan. Elder abuse, ageism, human rights and citizenship: implications for nursing discourse. . (2008) Nursing Inquiry, 15(4), 320–329.

[4] Toni M. Calasanti, Kathleen Slevin, and Neal King. Ageism and feminism: from et cetera to centre. (2006). National Women’s Studies Association Journal. 18, 13-30.

[5] R.L. Rubenstein. The third age. In R.S. Weiss & S. A. Bass (eds.) Challenges of the third age . Meaning and purpose in later life. Oxford University Press. New York. (2002) p. 29-55 at 30.

[6] Bernice L. Neugarten. Age groups in American society and the rise of the young-old. (1974). Annals of the American Academy of Politics and Social Sciences, 187-198.

[7] J.S. Habil. The Fourth Age: A Period of Psychological Mortality? Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin and Research Group of Psychological Gerontology, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Free University, Berlin Presented at the Harnack-Haus Forum, Biomolecular Aspects of Aging: Social and Ethical Implications. December 2000.

Also: Peter Laslett. A fresh map of life: The emergence of the Third Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

[8] See for example Mairead Mahoney and Victor W.Marshall. Minorities in the Information Technology Workforce Aging Issues. WANE. Working Paper #3. (Workforce Aging in the New Economy). 2003. Online: www.wane.ca/PDF/wp3.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[9] World Health Organization. Ageing. Online: www.who.int/topics/ageing/en/index.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

However, some WHO documents will use lower age thresholds such as age 50 in regions such as sub- Saharan Africa. See for example, Paul Kowal, P.V. Chalapati Rao and Colin Mathers. Report on a WHO Workshop: Minimum Data Set Version 1.0 on Ageing and Adult Mortality Data in sub-Saharan Africa Pretoria, South Africa 12 – 14 February 2003. Evidence and Information for Policy. World Health Organization Online: www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageing_mds_report_en_daressalaam.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[10] Andrew Wister, Andrew Sixsmith, Ray Adams, and Daniele Sunden. Factbook on Aging in British Columbia. 5th edition. Simon Fraser University, Vancouver British Columbia. 2009.

[11] Statistics Canada. Portrait of Seniors in Canada, 2006. Table 4.1.3 Marital status, by age group, 1981 and 2001. Online : www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-519-x/89-519-x2006001-eng.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.. [Hereafter referred to as “Portrait”], pg. 15

[12] Statistics Canada. Population by sex and age group, by province and territory (Number, both sexes).

[13] Alain Bélanger, Laurent Martel and Éric Caron-Malenfant. (2005). Statistics Canada. Population Projections for Canada, Provinces and Territories 2005-2031. Online: www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/91-520-x2005001-eng.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[14] Statistics Canada. Population by sex and age group, by province and territory, 2008. Online www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo31a-eng.htm Accessed September 15, 2009.

[15] In 2001, at least three Ontario smaller size communities (Elliott Lake, Tilsonburg and Coburg) each had 20 to 25 percent of its population as seniors, the highest proportion of seniors in the country. Mid size communities such as Orillia and Collingwood also exceeded the average (over 15% of their population was seniors).

Portrait, n. 11. Chart 1.9 Percentage of population comprised of seniors, selected towns1 with populations under 25,000, 2001, p.11 and Chart 1.8 Percentage of population comprised of seniors, selected towns1 with populations of 25,000 or more, 200, p.20.

[16] Robert Moulias, [Espace Ethique AP-HParis (Paris, France)]. (2009) The ethical need for a semantic consensus on a good use of the good words in gerontology. Presentation IAGG. Conference Paris, France

[17] Portrait, n. 11

[18] Statistics Canada (2005). Population projections for Canada, provinces and territories. 2005-2031, Cat. No. 91-520-XIE. pg. 50. Online : www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/91-520-x2005001-eng.pdf This refers to seniors who were not living in institutional settings .

[19] Veronica Doyle .Supportive Communities. (November 18, 1999). Online: www.seniors.gov.ab.ca/policy_planning/archives/aging_study/impact/presentations/veronica_doyle/

[20] Portrait, n. 11 Table 4.1.3 Marital status, by age group, 1981 and 2001.

[21] Portrait Table 4.1.3, Marital status, by age group, 1981 and 2001

[22] Portrait, note 11, pp. 22-23

[23] Portrait, note 11, p. 25

[24] Portrait, note 11, p. 25

[25] Portrait, note 11, p. 24

[26] Statistics Canada (2005). Projections of the Aboriginal populations, Canada, provinces and territories 2001 to 2017 Catalogue no. 91-547-XIE. Online: www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/91-547-XIE/91-547-XIE2005001.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[27] S. Parracka, and G.M. Joseph. The informal caregivers of aboriginal seniors: perspectives and issues. (2007). First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3 (4), 106-113.

[28] Willi Horner-Johnson and Charles Drum. Prevalence of maltreatment of people with intellectual disabilities: a review of recently published research. (2006). Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities – Research Reviews, 12, 57-69.

[29] National Coalition for the Homeless. (August 2007). NCH Fact Sheet #15, “Homelessness among elderly persons”. Online: www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/facts/elderly.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[30] Jill Manthrope. Nearest and dearest? The neglect of lesbians in caring relationships. (2003).British Journal of Social Work, 33(6), 753-768.

[31] See : Shari Brotman, Bill Ryan and Robert Cormier. The health and social service needs of gay and lesbian elders and their families in Canada. (2003).Gerontologist, 43(2), 192-202.

Shari Brotman, Bill Ryan, and Elizabeth Meyer (2006). The health and social service needs of gay and lesbian seniors and their families in Canada. Montreal: McGill School of Social Work.

N.A. Orel, N. A. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual elders: Expressed needs and concerns across focus groups. (2004). Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 43(2/3), 57-77.

[32] Brotman, et al., 2003, n. 31.

[33] National Seniors Council. Report of the National Seniors Council on low income among seniors. (February, 2009). Online: www.seniorscouncil.gc.ca/eng/research_publications/low_income/2009/hs1_9/page00.shtml Accessed September 15, 2009. [Hereafter referred to as “NSC”], p.5.

[34] John Myles. The maturation of Canada’s retirement income system: income levels, income inequality and low-income among the elderly. Statistics Canada and Florida State University. (2000). Online : www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2000147-eng.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[35] NSC, note 33, p.5

[36] Cranford, C. and Leah Vosko. “Conceptualizing precarious employment: mapping wage work across social location and occupational context,” in Leah Vosko, ( ed.) Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. (2006)

[37]NSC, note 33.

[38] NSC, note 33.

[39] NSC, note 33.

[40] NSC, note 33, p. 11.

[41] NSC, note 33.

[42] Special Senate Committee on Ageing. Canada’s Aging Population: Seizing the Opportunity. Final Report. ( April 2009). Online:

www.parl.gc.ca/40/2/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/agei-e/rep-e/AgingFinalReport-e.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[43] Burden of Illness, Power Study. Online: www.powerstudy.ca/ Accessed September 15, 2009.

[44] Portrait, note 11, pp. 107- 8 Chart 3.1.1 and 3.1.2

[45] Portrait, note, 11, p. 110.

[46] Martha Holstein. ‘‘On being an old woman.’’ In Toni M. Calasanti & Kathleen L. Slevin. (eds.). Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking., Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY, 2006.

[47] Christine A. Walsh, Jenny Ploeg, Lynne Lohfeld, Jaclyn Horne, Harriet MacMillan & Daniel Lai, D. Violence across the lifespan: interconnections among forms of abuse as described by marginalized Canadian elders and their care-givers. (2007). British Journal of Social Work 37, 491–514.

[48] Butler, note, 2 .

[49] Ontario Human Rights Commission. Time for Action: Advancing Human Rights for Older Ontarians. [Hereafter referred to as OHRC-TFA] . Online :

www.ohrc.on.ca/en/resources/discussion_consultation/TimeForActionsENGL?page=TimeForActionsENGL-Ageism_.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[50] Phelan, note 3.

[51] Ontario Human Rights Commission. Discrimination and Age – Human rights issues facing older persons in Ontario: Discussion Paper, (May 31, 2000), p. 39. Online at: www.ohrc.on.ca/english/consultations/age-discussion-paper.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[52] Vieillir au Québec – L’âgisme ordinaire. Online: www.ledevoir.com/2004/03/08/49235.html

Accessed September 30, 2009.

[53] Phelan, note 3.

[54] Robert Moulias, [Espace Ethique AP-HParis (Paris, France)]. (2009) The ethical need for a semantic consensus on a good use of the good words in gerontology. Presentation IAGG. Conference Paris, France.

[55] Special Senate Committee on Aging