Endnotes2017-03-03T18:30:47+00:00
[1] Thomas Bancroft, cited by Samuel Chew. Pilgrimages of Life, New Haven Conn. Yael University Press. (1962) see n. 77 (xxiii).

[2] Robert N. Butler. Why survive? Being old in America. New York: Harper & Row. (1975).

[3] Amanda Phelan. Elder abuse, ageism, human rights and citizenship: implications for nursing discourse. . (2008) Nursing Inquiry, 15(4), 320–329.

[4] Toni M. Calasanti, Kathleen Slevin, and Neal King. Ageism and feminism: from et cetera to centre. (2006). National Women’s Studies Association Journal. 18, 13-30.

[5] R.L. Rubenstein. The third age. In R.S. Weiss & S. A. Bass (eds.) Challenges of the third age . Meaning and purpose in later life. Oxford University Press. New York. (2002) p. 29-55 at 30.

[6] Bernice L. Neugarten. Age groups in American society and the rise of the young-old. (1974). Annals of the American Academy of Politics and Social Sciences, 187-198.

[7] J.S. Habil. The Fourth Age: A Period of Psychological Mortality? Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin and Research Group of Psychological Gerontology, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Free University, Berlin Presented at the Harnack-Haus Forum, Biomolecular Aspects of Aging: Social and Ethical Implications. December 2000.

Also: Peter Laslett. A fresh map of life: The emergence of the Third Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

[8] See for example Mairead Mahoney and Victor W.Marshall. Minorities in the Information Technology Workforce Aging Issues. WANE. Working Paper #3. (Workforce Aging in the New Economy). 2003. Online: www.wane.ca/PDF/wp3.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[9] World Health Organization. Ageing. Online: www.who.int/topics/ageing/en/index.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

However, some WHO documents will use lower age thresholds such as age 50 in regions such as sub- Saharan Africa. See for example, Paul Kowal, P.V. Chalapati Rao and Colin Mathers. Report on a WHO Workshop: Minimum Data Set Version 1.0 on Ageing and Adult Mortality Data in sub-Saharan Africa Pretoria, South Africa 12 – 14 February 2003. Evidence and Information for Policy. World Health Organization Online: www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageing_mds_report_en_daressalaam.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[10] Andrew Wister, Andrew Sixsmith, Ray Adams, and Daniele Sunden. Factbook on Aging in British Columbia. 5th edition. Simon Fraser University, Vancouver British Columbia. 2009.

[11] Statistics Canada. Portrait of Seniors in Canada, 2006. Table 4.1.3 Marital status, by age group, 1981 and 2001. Online : www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-519-x/89-519-x2006001-eng.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.. [Hereafter referred to as “Portrait”], pg. 15

[12] Statistics Canada. Population by sex and age group, by province and territory (Number, both sexes).

[13] Alain Bélanger, Laurent Martel and Éric Caron-Malenfant. (2005). Statistics Canada. Population Projections for Canada, Provinces and Territories 2005-2031. Online: www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/91-520-x2005001-eng.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[14] Statistics Canada. Population by sex and age group, by province and territory, 2008. Online www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo31a-eng.htm Accessed September 15, 2009.

[15] In 2001, at least three Ontario smaller size communities (Elliott Lake, Tilsonburg and Coburg) each had 20 to 25 percent of its population as seniors, the highest proportion of seniors in the country. Mid size communities such as Orillia and Collingwood also exceeded the average (over 15% of their population was seniors).

Portrait, n. 11. Chart 1.9 Percentage of population comprised of seniors, selected towns1 with populations under 25,000, 2001, p.11 and Chart 1.8 Percentage of population comprised of seniors, selected towns1 with populations of 25,000 or more, 200, p.20.

[16] Robert Moulias, [Espace Ethique AP-HParis (Paris, France)]. (2009) The ethical need for a semantic consensus on a good use of the good words in gerontology. Presentation IAGG. Conference Paris, France

[17] Portrait, n. 11

[18] Statistics Canada (2005). Population projections for Canada, provinces and territories. 2005-2031, Cat. No. 91-520-XIE. pg. 50. Online : www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/91-520-x2005001-eng.pdf This refers to seniors who were not living in institutional settings .

[19] Veronica Doyle .Supportive Communities. (November 18, 1999). Online: www.seniors.gov.ab.ca/policy_planning/archives/aging_study/impact/presentations/veronica_doyle/

[20] Portrait, n. 11 Table 4.1.3 Marital status, by age group, 1981 and 2001.

[21] Portrait Table 4.1.3, Marital status, by age group, 1981 and 2001

[22] Portrait, note 11, pp. 22-23

[23] Portrait, note 11, p. 25

[24] Portrait, note 11, p. 25

[25] Portrait, note 11, p. 24

[26] Statistics Canada (2005). Projections of the Aboriginal populations, Canada, provinces and territories 2001 to 2017 Catalogue no. 91-547-XIE. Online: www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/91-547-XIE/91-547-XIE2005001.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[27] S. Parracka, and G.M. Joseph. The informal caregivers of aboriginal seniors: perspectives and issues. (2007). First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3 (4), 106-113.

[28] Willi Horner-Johnson and Charles Drum. Prevalence of maltreatment of people with intellectual disabilities: a review of recently published research. (2006). Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities – Research Reviews, 12, 57-69.

[29] National Coalition for the Homeless. (August 2007). NCH Fact Sheet #15, “Homelessness among elderly persons”. Online: www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/facts/elderly.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[30] Jill Manthrope. Nearest and dearest? The neglect of lesbians in caring relationships. (2003).British Journal of Social Work, 33(6), 753-768.

[31] See : Shari Brotman, Bill Ryan and Robert Cormier. The health and social service needs of gay and lesbian elders and their families in Canada. (2003).Gerontologist, 43(2), 192-202.

Shari Brotman, Bill Ryan, and Elizabeth Meyer (2006). The health and social service needs of gay and lesbian seniors and their families in Canada. Montreal: McGill School of Social Work.

N.A. Orel, N. A. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual elders: Expressed needs and concerns across focus groups. (2004). Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 43(2/3), 57-77.

[32] Brotman, et al., 2003, n. 31.

[33] National Seniors Council. Report of the National Seniors Council on low income among seniors. (February, 2009). Online: www.seniorscouncil.gc.ca/eng/research_publications/low_income/2009/hs1_9/page00.shtml Accessed September 15, 2009. [Hereafter referred to as “NSC”], p.5.

[34] John Myles. The maturation of Canada’s retirement income system: income levels, income inequality and low-income among the elderly. Statistics Canada and Florida State University. (2000). Online : www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2000147-eng.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[35] NSC, note 33, p.5

[36] Cranford, C. and Leah Vosko. “Conceptualizing precarious employment: mapping wage work across social location and occupational context,” in Leah Vosko, ( ed.) Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. (2006)

[37]NSC, note 33.

[38] NSC, note 33.

[39] NSC, note 33.

[40] NSC, note 33, p. 11.

[41] NSC, note 33.

[42] Special Senate Committee on Ageing. Canada’s Aging Population: Seizing the Opportunity. Final Report. ( April 2009). Online:

www.parl.gc.ca/40/2/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/agei-e/rep-e/AgingFinalReport-e.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[43] Burden of Illness, Power Study. Online: www.powerstudy.ca/ Accessed September 15, 2009.

[44] Portrait, note 11, pp. 107- 8 Chart 3.1.1 and 3.1.2

[45] Portrait, note, 11, p. 110.

[46] Martha Holstein. ‘‘On being an old woman.’’ In Toni M. Calasanti & Kathleen L. Slevin. (eds.). Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking., Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY, 2006.

[47] Christine A. Walsh, Jenny Ploeg, Lynne Lohfeld, Jaclyn Horne, Harriet MacMillan & Daniel Lai, D. Violence across the lifespan: interconnections among forms of abuse as described by marginalized Canadian elders and their care-givers. (2007). British Journal of Social Work 37, 491–514.

[48] Butler, note, 2 .

[49] Ontario Human Rights Commission. Time for Action: Advancing Human Rights for Older Ontarians. [Hereafter referred to as OHRC-TFA] . Online :

www.ohrc.on.ca/en/resources/discussion_consultation/TimeForActionsENGL?page=TimeForActionsENGL-Ageism_.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[50] Phelan, note 3.

[51] Ontario Human Rights Commission. Discrimination and Age – Human rights issues facing older persons in Ontario: Discussion Paper, (May 31, 2000), p. 39. Online at: www.ohrc.on.ca/english/consultations/age-discussion-paper.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[52] Vieillir au Québec – L’âgisme ordinaire. Online: www.ledevoir.com/2004/03/08/49235.html

Accessed September 30, 2009.

[53] Phelan, note 3.

[54] Robert Moulias, [Espace Ethique AP-HParis (Paris, France)]. (2009) The ethical need for a semantic consensus on a good use of the good words in gerontology. Presentation IAGG. Conference Paris, France.

[55] Special Senate Committee on Aging, note 42.

[56] Michele Charpentier, personal communication. Also see: Michèle Charpentier, Anne Quéniart, and Julie Jacques. Activism Among Older Women in Quebec, Canada: Changing the World After Age 65. 2008. Journal of Women & Aging, 20(3/4), 343-360.

[57] Toni Calasanti. A feminist confronts ageism. (2008). Journal of Aging Studies. 22 (2 )152-157.

[58] Calasanti, note 57.

[59] Charmaine Spencer. Discrimination: The law and older adults. In Ann Soden (ed.) Advising the Older Client. LexisNexis Butterworths, Toronto, 2005, pp.251-304.

[60] Kelly Joyce and Laura Mamo. Graying the cyborg: new directions in feminist analyses of aging, science, and technology. In Toni M. Calasanti and Kathleen L. Slevin. (eds.) Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. 2006.
Also: B.L. Mitchell and S. Katz. From androgyny to androgens: re-sexing the aging body. In Toni M. Calasanti & Kathleen L. Slevin. (eds.) .) Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. 2006.
[61] Law Commission of Canada. Does age matter? Law and relationships between generations. (2004). Online: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/JL2-23-2003E.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[62] R.S.O. 1990, c. H.19.

[63] R.S.O. 1990, c. H.19, s. 15.

[64] Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing (1982). Online: www.un.org/ageing/vienna_intlplanofaction.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[65] International Plan of Action on Ageing, 2002. Online: www.un.org/ageing/madrid_intlplanaction.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[66] United Nations Principles for Older Persons. Online: www.un.org/ageing/un_principles.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[67] Sergei Zelenev, Chief, Social Integration Branch, DSPD/DESA, UN Secretariat (New York, USA), Advancing the rights of older persons: dilemmas and options. IAGG Opening Ceremony, July 5, 2009.

[68] Danielle Bridel. What the United Nations should do about our ageing world. (2002). Online: www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2002/issue2/0202p58_3_our_ageing_world.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[69] Lindsay Judge. The rights of older people: international law, human rights mechanisms and the case for new normative standards. Background briefing paper. International Symposium on the Rights of Older People. Age Concern England, HelpAge International and the International Federation on Ageing. January 2009 .Online:

www.ifa-fiv.org/images/stories/PDFs/rights%20of%20older%20people%20law%20and%20standards.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[70] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Social Policy and Development Programme on Ageing Report of the Expert Group Meeting “Rights of Older Persons”. Convened in preparation for the report of the Secretary-General to the 64th session of the General Assembly. 5-7 May 2009, Bonn, Germany. Online: www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/documents/egm/bonn09/report.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009. [Hereafter UN 2009 Report]

[71] UN 2009 Report, note 70.

[72] Wikipedia “United Nations Special Rapporteur.”Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Special_Rapporteur Accessed September 15, 2009.

[73] Israel Doron (ed.) Theories on Law and Ageing: The Jurisprudence of Elder Law. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009.

[74] J.D. Garner. Feminist gerontology. Journal of Women and Aging. 11 (2/3) 3-12. (1999)

[75] Toni M. Calasanti, Kathleen Slevin & N. King. Ageism and feminism: from et cetera to centre. (2006). National Women’s Studies Association Journal. 18, 13-30.

[76] Toni Calasanti & Kathleen Slevin. (eds).Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Theory. Routledge: New York. 2006. pg. 2

[77] H.Jonson and M. Akerstrom. Neglect of elderly women in feminist studies of violence–a case of ageism. (2004) Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect. 16 (1). 47-63.

[78] Calasanti, et al. note 75.

[79] E. Macia, N. Chapuis-Lucciani, and G. Boëtsch. Stéréotypes liés à l’âge, estime de soi et santé perçue. Sciences Sociales & Santé, 25, 79-106. (2007).

[80] Kim Dayton (2009). A feminist approach to elder law. In I. Doron (ed.). Theories on law and ageing: the jurisprudence of elder law. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pg. 45-57

[81] Garner, note 74.

[82] Dayton, note 80.

[83] Katherine R. Allen and Alexis Walke. Aging and gender in families a very grand opening. In Toni Calasanti and Kathleen Slevin (eds). (2006). Age matters: realigning feminist theory. Routledge: New York, 155- 175 at 160.

[84] Calasanti and Slevin, 2006 note 76 at pg. 6

[85] Gender and the law. Online : http://academic.udayton.edu/gender/ Accessed September 15, 2009.

[86] For example in the context of ageing and employment, elites might press for changes in employment to encourage older workers to remain in the work force when there are labour shortages, but also ensure the provisions allow for retrenchment. Older workers become disposable (“yo-yo “) workers, pulled in or out as business economies dictate.

[87] D.A. Bell. “Who’s afraid of Critical Race Theory? “ (1995). University of Illinois Law Review, 839-910.

[88] David Piccolo (2008) Pension income splitting: an imperfect solution to an unclear problem. Osgoode Law School. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1305969

[89] See for example, Wallach, I. (CSSS Cavendish, Montréal, Canada). Aging and HIV: a double risk for discrimination, IAGG Paris.

[90] Toni Calasanti. Bodacious berry, potency wood and the aging monster: gender and age relations in anti-aging ads. (September 2007).Social Forces, 86 (1), 335-355.

[91] Patricia McIntosh. White privilege: unpacking the invisible knapsack. Online: sascwr.org/resources/pdfs/anti-oppression/WHITE%20PRIVILEGE.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[92] Charmaine Spencer. Daily effects of age privilege. (2009). Online: www.canadianelderlaw.ca/age%20privilege.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[93] Doug Surtees. What can elder law learn from disability law? In Israel Doron (ed.). Theories on Law and Ageing. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, p. 93-105.

[94] Surtees, note 93.

[95] Surtees, note 93.

[96] See for example Centre for Research on Personhood in Dementia. Online: www.crpd.ubc.ca/ Accessed September 15, 2009.

[97] W.C. Schmidt. Law and aging: mental health theory approach. In Doron (ed.) Theories on Law and Ageing. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, p. 121-146.

[98] Schmidt, note 97.

[99] Alison Marie Kenner. Securing the Elderly Body: Dementia, Surveillance, and the Politics of “Aging in Place” (2008).Surveillance & Society 5(3), 252-269.

[100] Schmidt, note 97.

[101] The other group is adults with serious mental illness.

[102] Portrait, note 11 pg. 82 Table 2.1.8 Prevalence of chronic conditions, by age group and sex, 2003

[103] Spencer, C., Charpentier, M., Macdonald, L Harbison, J., Beaulieu, M. Hirst, S., & Podnieks, E . (2007). National snapshot on abuse prevention in institutional settings. Prepared for “A Way Forward” national project. University of Toronto, Institute for Life Course and Aging.

Vincent J. Roscigno, Sherry Mong, Reginald Byron, and Griff Tester. Age discrimination, social closure and employment. Social Forces. 86 (1), 313-334. (2007).

[105] See for example, Brenda Cossman. Contesting conservatisms, family feuds and the privatization of dependency. University of Toronto, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 05-11

[106] Koshan, J. & Wiegers, W. Theorizing civil domestic violence legislation in the context of restructuring: a tale of two provinces. (2007). Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 19 (1), 145-178.

[107] Romano, L., Wahl, J. & Meadus, J. The law as it affects older adults. Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario, Advocacy Centre for the Elderly. July 2008, p. 28. Online : www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_July_2008.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009. [Hereafter ACE- LCO, 2008]

[108] Law Commission of Ontario. Law as it affects older adults – backgrounder. 2008. Online. www.lco-cdo.org/en/documents/OlderAdultsMay08/oabackgrounder.html Accessed September 15, 2009

[109] Law Commission of Ontario. Principles for developing a framework for the law affecting older adults. Online: www.lco-cdo.org/en/olderadultssecII.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[110]Division of Aging and Seniors. A guide for the development of a comprehensive system of support to promote active aging. Public Health Agency of Canada. Online: www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/paho/paho_toc_e.htm

[111]Division of Aging and Seniors. Principles of a comprehensive system of support. Online: www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/paho/paho_3_e.htm A Accessed September 15, 2009.

[112] Canada Health Act, R.S., c. C-6 (1985).

[113] See: NHS age discrimination ‘common’. BBC News. January 27, 2009. Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7850881.stm

Beecham, J., Knapp, M. , Fernández, J.L., Huxley, P., Mangalore, R. McCrone, P.,Snell, T., Winter, B. & Wittenberg, R. Age discrimination in Mental Health Services. Personal Social Services Research Unit. May 2008. Online: www.pssru.ac.uk/pdf/dp2536.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[114] Robert L. Kane. & Rosalie A. Kane. Ageism in healthcare and long term care. (2005).Generations. 29 (3) 49-54. Online : www.asaging.org/publications/dbase/GEN/Gen29_3.Kane.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2009.

[115] Christine A. Walsh, Jenny Ploeg, Lynne Lohfeld, Jaclyn Horne, Harriet MacMillan & Daniel Lai, D. Violence across the lifespan: interconnections among forms of abuse as described by marginalized Canadian elders and their care-givers. (2007). British Journal of Social Work 37, 491–514.

[116] National Framework for Service Change in the NHS in Scotland. National Planning Team, May 2005. Online: www.sehd.scot.nhs.uk/NationalFramework/Documents/DRIVERSFORCHANGE.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[117] Calasanti, note 76.

For examples from the United Kingdom, which has been looking at age discrimination in health care for several years, see: Age Concern’s submission to the Joint Committee on Human Rights’ inquiry into the human rights of older persons in healthcare. Online: www.bgs.org.uk/…/Age%20Concern%20%20Human%20Rights.doc

And : British Geriatrics Society . Submission by the British Geriatrics Society to the Department of Health on:

National Review of Age Discrimination in Health and Social Care. Online: www.bgs.org.uk/Publications/Position%20Papers/BGS%20Response%20National%20review%20of%20age%20discrimination.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[118] See A.S. Vogt Yuan. Perceived age discrimination and mental health. Social Forces, 86 (1) 291-311. (September, 2007).

M. Pasupathi & C.E. Lockenhoff. Ageist behavior. In Todd D. Nelson, editor. Ageism: stereotyping and prejudice against older persons. MIT Press, pp.201-46. (2002)

[119] M. Greene., G. Adelman, R., Charon, R. & Hoffman, S. Ageism in the medical encounter: an exploratory study of the doctor-elderly patient relationship. (1986). Language and Communication 6(1-2), 113-24.

[120] K. Rost & R. Frankel. The introduction of the older patient’s problems in the medical visit. Journal of Aging and Health 5(3), 387-401. (1993).

[121] Elizabeth Dozois. Ageism: a review of the literature. Prepared for Calgary Health Region, Healthy Aging Committee. (May 2006). Online: www.calgaryhealthregion.ca/programs/aging/pdf/ageism_lit_review_final_may2006.pdf

[122] Dozois, note 121.

[123] Kings Fund. Briefing note. Age discrimination in health and social care. Online: www.kingsfund.org.uk/document.rm?id=5668

[124] Kane & Kane, note 114.

[125] Yuan, note 118.

[126] Noel Simard. Ethical dilemmas of caring for seniors. Reflets, 2 (2) 2-18. (Fall, 1996).

[127] Dozois, note 121.

[128] Alliance for Aging Research. (2003). Ageism: how healthcare fails the elderly. Online:

www.agingresearch.org/brochures/ageism/index.cfm [Hereafter “Alliance for Aging Research, 2003”] Accessed September 15, 2009.

[129] Alliance for Aging Research, 2003., note 128.

[130] Alliance for Aging Research. Ageism Part II: prevention and treatment for the elderly. Online: www.agingresearch.org/content/article/detail/889/ Accessed September 15, 2009.

[131] Monique M. Williams. Invisible, unequal, and forgotten: health disparities in the elderly 21 Notre Dame Journal of Law Ethics & Public Policy, 441. (2007). Online: www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28777115/ Accessed September 15, 2009.

[132] A. Cruzjentoft. (2009) Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal (Madrid, Spain). The exclusion of older people from clinical trials, IAGG Paris

[133] Kane & Kane, note 114.

[134] J. Ankri. Universite de Versailles St-Quentin en Yvelines (Paris, France).Age-based inequalities in prescribing effective drugs, IAGG, Paris. (2009)

[135] L. D. Grant. Effects of ageism on individual and health care providers’ responses to healthy aging. Health and Social Work. 21 (1), 9-15. (1996).

[136] C. Safiliou, C. ( 2009). European Group of Experts on Age discrimination (Pireas, Greece)

[137] David. C. Mendelssohn, Boon Toh Kua & Peter A. Singer. Referral for dialysis in Ontario. (1995). Archives of Internal Medicine. 155(22), 2473-2478. (

[138] http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/H88-5-1-2005E.pdf`

[139] Eldridge v. British Columbia (Attorney General) [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624.

[140] Health Care Consent Act,1996 S.O. 1996, c. 2

[141] Simard, note 126.

[142] Judith Wahl, Health care consent and advance care planning – getting it right. OSCA- ONPEA Conference, (2008). Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/OCSA_ONPEA%20Conference%20Slides%20-%20Oct%202008%20-%20Health%20Care%20Consent%20&%20Advance%20Care%20Planning.pdf

[143] Judith Wahl. (The Health Care Consent Act and the Substitute Decisions Act – Who Decides What When? 25 common misconceptions about the Substitute Decisions Act and Health Care Consent Act. 09/06/03). Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/poa/misconceptions.pdf [Hereafter “ACE, Misconceptions”]

[144] ACE, Misconceptions, note 143

[145] College of physicians tells MDs to stop cherry-picking patients. Vancouver Sun. (April 17, 2008). Online: www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/story.html?id=d4c0b820-4f2b-4571-8cc8-29e3fa2c866f

Also : National Review of Medicine. Should you choose your patients wisely? 2( 12). (June 30, 2005).

Online: www.nationalreviewofmedicine.com/issue/2005/06_30/2_feature04_12.html This article notes family doctors in Alberta were declining new patients over the age of 70.

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia. Policy regarding accepting new patients. Online: www.cpsns.ns.ca/publications/accepting-patients.htm

[146] Canadian Medical Association Code of Ethics Update 2004. It states:

s. 17. In providing medical service, do not discriminate against any patient on such grounds as age, gender, marital status, medical condition, national or ethnic origin, physical or mental disability, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. This does not abrogate the physician’s right to refuse to accept a patient for legitimate reasons.

[147] Lowry v. Royal Victoria Hospital, [2009 ] HRTO 879.

[148] Ontario Human Rights Commission. (February 14, 2008.), Submission of the Ontario Human Rights Commission to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario regarding the draft policies relating to establishing and ending physician-patient relationships. Online: www.ohrc.on.ca/en/resources/submissions/surgeons Accessed September 15, 2009.
See also College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Ending the physician-patient relationship and accepting new patients. Online : www.cpso.on.ca/policies/policies/default.aspx?ID=2506#_ftnref6 and
www.cpso.on.ca/policies/policies/default.aspx?ID=1592 Accessed September 15, 2009.
[149] Robin Kalbfleisch. December 1, 2000. Doctors in New Brunswick impose one problem per visit rule. Canadian Health Care Manager. Online: www.chmonline.ca/issue/article.jsp?content=20001201_280136_10036 Accessed September 15, 2009. Note : In New Brunswick, the one visit rule was done as a means to protest fee levels.
Also: College of Physicians and Surgeons of Newfoundland and Labrador. “One problem one visit not the solution.” CPSNL. Now, (March 2009). p.8 Online: www.cpsnl.ca/Newsletters/one%20problem%20article.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.
[150]College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan. Patient- physician relationships. Online: www.quadrant.net/cpss/resource/relationships.html [Hereafter CPCS} Accessed September 15, 2009.
[151]CPCS , note 150.

[152] Ontario Human Rights Commission. Discrimination and Age – Human Rights Issues Facing Older Persons in Ontario: Discussion Paper, at 19. (May 31, 2000).

[153] Rohan, E.R., Berkman, B., Walker, S., & Holmes, W. The geriatric oncology patient: ageism in social work practice. (1994). Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 23 (1/2), 201-221.

[154] Suicide.Org. Suicide statistics. Online : www.suicide.org/suicide-statistics.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[155] Alliance for Aging Research, 2003, note 128.

[156] Toward a National Strategy on Mental Illness and Mental Health. CMA Presentation to the Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology Dr. Sunil Patel President, Canadian Medical Association Ottawa, March 31, 2004. Online: www.cma.ca/index.cfm/ci_id/33248/la_id/1.htm Accessed September 15, 2009.

[157] Ontario Health Coalition. Home Care Report: Media Backgrounder November 17, 2008. Online: www.web.net/ohc/summaryandnotesnov1708.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.
[158] Carol Kushner, Patricia Baranek & Marion Dewar (November 17, 2008 ). Home care: change we need. Report on the Ontario Health Coalition’s Home Care Hearings. Online: www.web.net/ohc/homecarereportnov1708.pdf at page 16 -17 [ Hereafter Ontario Health Coalition] Accessed September 15, 2009.
[159] Elinor Caplan. Realizing the Potential of Home Care. 2005. Online: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/public/pub/ministry_reports/ccac_05/ccac_05.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[160] Jane Aronson. Elderly people’s accounts of home care rationing: missing voices in long-term care policy debates. Journal of Aging and Society, 22 (2002). 401-411.

[161] Kushner, et al. at page 7

[162] Employment Standards Act, 2000, S.O. 2000, c. 41.

[163] Your Guide to the Employment Standards Act, 2000, Online: www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/es/pdf/es_guide.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[164] Ontario Health Coalition, note 158, at p. 33

[165] Ontario Health Coalition note 158, at p. 33

[166] Ontario Health Coalition note 158, at p. 33

[167] Ontario Health Coalition note 158, at p. 12

[168] Regulated Health Professions Act S.O. 1991, c. 18

[169] Ontario Community Support Association. The Regulation of Personal Support Workers. Online: www.ocsa.on.ca/userfiles/PSW-FinalReportSept27-06.pdf [Hereafter “OSCA”] Pg, 12 Accessed September 15, 2009.
[170] OSCA, note 169.

[171] OSCA, note 169, pg 14

[172] Judith Wahl. Using retirement homes as way stations between hospitals and long-term care homes: what you need to know. Advocate; Canadian Association of Retired Persons. (2009). Online: www.carp.ca/advocacy/adv-article-display.cfm?documentid=4003&adv_section=1 Accessed September 15, 2009. Also: (Summer, 2009). ACE Newsletter. Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/newsletter/ACENewsletter-Summer2009.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.
[173] Canadian Institute for Health Information (January 14, 2009). Analysis in brief. Alternate Level of Care in Canada. Online: http://secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/products/ALC%20AIB_FINAL.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.
[174] (August 2006). Alzheimer Society of Ireland. Perceptions of stigma in dementia: an exploratory study. Trinity College of Nursing and Midwifery. Online: www.alzheimer.ie/eng/Resources/Research/Perceptions-of-Stigma-in-Dementia-An-Exploratory-Study [Hereafter “Perception”] Accessed September 15, 2009.
[175] Perception, note 174

[176] Nick Jackson, Michael Johnson, and Roe Roberts. The potential impact of discrimination fears of older gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender individuals living in small- to moderate-sized cities on long-term health care. (2008). Journal of Homosexuality, 54(3) 325-339.

[177] E. Fullmer, D. Shenk, D., & L. Eastland. Negating identity: A feminist analysis of the social invisibility of older lesbians. (1999).Journal of Women and Aging, 11(2/3), 131-148.

Also J. Harrison. ‘It’s none of my business’: Gay and lesbian invisibility in aged care. (2001). Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 48(3), 142-153. And D. Clover. Overcoming barriers for older gay men in the use of health services: A qualitative study of growing older, sexuality and health. (2006).Health Education Journal, 65, 41-52.

[178] Canadian Research Network for Care in the Community. (2007). Diversity: Sexual orientation in home and community care. Online:

www.ryerson.ca/crncc/knowledge/factsheets/documents/InFocus-Diversity-SexualOrientationinHomecommunityCare.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.
[179] Shari Brotman. The limits of multiculturalism in elder care services Journal of Aging Studies, 17 (2), 209-229. (May 2003).

[180] S. Ebrahim, Caring for older people: ethnic elder. .(September 7, 1996). British Medical Journal, 313, 610-619.

[181] Sana Halwani (December, 2004). Racial inequality in access to health care services. Race Policy Dialogue Conference Paper. Online: www.ohrc.on.ca/en/issues/racism/racepolicydialogue/sh Accessed September 15, 2009.
[182] Ebrahim, n. 180.

[183] J. Teras. Four myths about older adults in America’s immigrant families. Generations, 32 ( 4 )4-96. 2008-09.
[184] Halwani, note181.
[185] On the situation generally, see : Jane, E. Meadus, Judith A. Wahl, & Pauline Rosenbaum. Written Submission to the Standing Committee on Social Policy on Bill 140, An Act respecting long-term care homes. (Jan. 17, 2007). pg. 53

Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Nursing/Submission.pdf

At page 53, ACE notes that a 2004 research study of advance directive policies in long term care homes in Ontario found that “policies regarding advance directives in long-term care centres in Ontario generally do not comply with the spirit or the letter of the applicable laws” (citing Dr. Heather Lambert et al., “Advance directive use in Ontario long-term care facilities: a policy study” (Health Services and Policy Research Day, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, poster, 2004). See also Judith Wahl, Testimony to the Special Senate Committee on Aging, May 28, 2007. Online: www.parl.gc.ca/39/1/parlbus/commbus/senate/Com-e/agei-e/44655-e.htm?Language=E&Parl=39&Ses=1&comm_id=600

See also : Ferdinando L. Mirarchi, Stella Kalantzis, Daniel Hunter, Emily McCracken, Theresa Kisiel. TRIAD II: Do Living Wills Have an Impact on Pre-Hospital Lifesaving Care? (2009). Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36 (2) 105-115.

In British Columbia, at least one health region undertook to develop a special program specifically designed to encourage seniors to prepare advance directives. The program was also based on an Ontario publication, Let Me Decide, which did not accurately represent the law in British Columbia (or Ontario).

[186] Health Care Consent Act S.O. 1996, c. 2

[187] Substitute Decision Act S.O. 1992, c. 30 Part II, s. 43 to 53.

[188] Tom Stainton. Advance directives: promoting self determination or dying for dollars? Perspectives [newsletter of the B.C. Association of Social Workers]. 28 (3), 6. (May 2006).

[189] Wahl, J. (2008). Health Care Consent and advance care planning – getting it right. OSCA- ONPEA Conference, Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/OCSA_ONPEA%20Conference%20Slides%20-%20Oct%202008%20-%20Health%20Care%20Consent%20&%20Advance%20Care%20Planning.pdf

[190] Modern pursuit of human perfection – determining who’s worthy of life. Online: whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2009/02/22/disability-individual-autonomy-and-systematic-devaluation/ Accessed September 15, 2009.
[191] Peter A. Ubel, George Lowenstein, Norbert Schwartz, & Dylan Smith. Misimagining the unimaginable: the disability paradox and health care decision making. Health Psychology, (Suppl.), S57–S62. ( 2005).

Online: http://sds.hss.cmu.edu/media/pdfs/loewenstein/MisimaginingUnimaginable.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[192]Steve Doughty. Old people with dementia have a duty to die and should be pushed towards death, says Baroness Warnock, September 20, 2008. The Daily Mail. Online: www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1058404/Old-people-dementia-duty-die-pushed-death-says-Baroness-Warnock.html#ixzz0NVi6yMS2 Accessed September 15, 2009.

[193] See for example the Centre for Research on Personhood in Dementia. Online: www.crpd.ubc.ca/

[194] Special Senate Committee on Aging. (March 2008). Second Interim Report Issues and Options for an Aging Population at pg. 32. Online: www.globalaging.org/elderrights/world/2009/Special%20Senate%20Committee%20on%20Aging.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[195]Special Senate Committee on Aging, at p. 32

[196] Charmaine Spencer, Michele Charpentier, Lynn Macdonald, Joan Harbison, Marie Beaulieu, Sandi Hirst, & Elizabeth Podnieks (2007). National snapshot on abuse prevention in institutional settings. Prepared for “A Way Forward” national project. University of Toronto, Institute for Life Course and Aging.

[197]Ontario Health Coalition note 158.

[198] Health Advisory Service (2000). “Not because they are old” An independent inquiry into the care of older people on acute wards in general hospitals.

[199] Personal Health Information Protection Act, S.O. 2004, c.3.

[200] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly. (2008) Re: Review of the Personal Health Information Protection Act, 2004. Online : www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/ACE_Review_of_PHIPA_August_2008.pdf

[201] ACE –LCO, note 107, p. 18.

[202] Among older adults, strata owners are one group that have brought some discrimination cases to human rights bodies. Unlike renters, they have a certain degree of stability in their housing to make it worth their while. Most cases rely on disability grounds.

See for example:

· Waterloo North Condominium Corp. No. 198 v. Donner ( 1997) 36 O.R. (3d) 243, ( Ont. Ct. G.D.), the court declined to declare that an 85 year old women with a hearing-ear dog must abide by the “no pet” bylaw of the condominium.

· Ganser v. Rosewood Estates Condominium Corp. January 15, 2002 [unreported]. Online at Alberta Human Rights Commission. www.albertahumanrights.ab.ca/legislation/Panel_Decisions/panel_decisGanser.asp

In Ganser, an 87 year old woman with macular degeneration and several other disabling conditions had her parking space in the condominium unit reassigned to another unit owner. The loss of the parking space was the result of changes to the bylaws, which now required the owner of any parking space to hold a valid driver’s license. Previously, the woman had exclusive use of this parking stall. Her friends and her granddaughter frequently used the space when they came to help her at home and in the community.

· Williams v. Strata Council No. 768 (2003), 46 C.H.R.R. D/326, 2003 BCHRT 17 (senior with arthritis). See also, Konieczna v. Owners Strata Plan NW2489 (No. 2) (2003), 47 C.H.R.R. D/144, 2003 BCHRT 38 (involving a woman with severe allergies).

· Jones v. The Owners Strata Plan 1571 and others, 2008 BCHRT 2008. Purchase of property, personal assistance dog , bylaws prohibit dogs over certain size.

[203] Michael Haan & Thomas Perks. The housing careers of older Canadians: an investigation using Cycle 16 of the General Social Survey. Canadian Studies in Population, 35 (2), (2008) pp. 223–242 at 228. Online: www.canpopsoc.org/journal/CSPv35n2p223.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[204] Ontario Non Profit Housing Association (March 2, 2009). ‘Where’s Home? 2008” Prepared for the Ontario Non Profit Housing Association and the Cooperative Housing Federation of Canada. Figure 7. [Hereafter ONPHA, Home 2008]. Online : www.onpha.on.ca/Content/About_nph/wheresHome2008/Wheres_Home_2008_REVISED.pdf

Accessed September 15, 2009.

[205] ONPHA, Home 2008, note 204.

[206] Disabled Women’s Network Ontario. Challenging homelessness and poverty as human rights violations an update on CERA’s test case litigation. Online : www.equalityrights.org/cera/docs/tcupdate.rtf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[207] Monica Townson. Reducing poverty among older women: the potential of retirement income policies, Ottawa, Status of Women Canada, (August 2000), at page 14.

[208] National Council on Welfare. A Pension Primer: A Report by the National Council on Welfare (Ottawa, Summer, 1999). Online at : www.ncwcnbes.net/htmdocument/reportpensionprimer/reppensionprimer.htm Accessed September 15, 2009.

[209] ONPHA, Home 2008, note 204. p. 40

[210] ONPHA, Home 2008, note 204 p. 41.

[211] David Hulchanski. What factors shape Canadian housing policy, In R. Young & C. Leuprecht. (eds.) Municipal- Federal- Provincial Relations in Canada. Montreal and Kingston: Institute of Intergovernmental Relations. 2006, pp. 221-247.

[212] J. David Hulchanski. Rethinking Canada’s housing affordability challenge. Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto. (January, 2005). Online: www.urbancentre.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/Hulchanski-Housing-Affd-pap.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.
[213] Ontario Non Profit Housing Association. ONPHA’s Comments on “Right at Home” The Ontario Human Rights Commission May 2008 Report on Human Rights and Rental Housing, at pg. 5. June 2009. Online: www.onpha.on.ca/AM/AMTemplate.cfm?Section=Home&CONTENTID=5452&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm Accessed September 15, 2009.

[214] ONPHA, 2009, note 213 p. 7
[215] ONPHA, 2009, note 213 p. 10-11

[216] ONPHA, 2009, note 213 p. 10-11

[217] ONPHA, 2009, note 213 p. 10-11

[218] ONPHA, 2009, note 213 p. 10-11

[219] Ontario Non Profit Housing Association, Types of social housing in Ontario. Online: www.onpha.on.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=History_of_Non_Profit_Housing&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=4704 Accessed September 15, 2009.
[220] This language will change with the new Long Term Care Act, 2004 not yet in force.

[221] Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing Social Housing Branch. Strong Communities Rent Supplement Program 2004. Online www.mah.gov.on.ca/Asset952.aspx Accessed September 15, 2009.

[222] Ontario Retirement Communities Association “ Fact Sheet” Online: www.orca-homes.com/documents/FactSheet_000.pdf Accessed May30, 2009.

[223] Residential Tenancies Act, 2006, S.O. 2006, c. 17

[224] Ministry of Health and Long Term Care “Seniors’ care : supportive housing”. Online: www.health.gov.on.ca/english/public/program/ltc/13_housing.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[225] Centre for Equality in Rental Accommodation. Human rights in housing in Canada: an advocate’s guide. (May 2008), p. 21. Online: www.equalityrights.org/cera/docs/National%20Guide%20English%20Final.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[226]Ontario Human Rights Commission. Right at home: Report on the consultation on human rights and rental housing in Ontario. p. 15. Online: www.ohrc.on.ca/en/resources/discussion_consultation/housingconsultationreport/pdf Accessed September 15, 2009 [Hereafter OHRC, Rental housing].

[227] Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (October 2001). Residualization of rental tenure: attitudes of private landlords toward low-income households. CMHC Research Highlights Socio-Economic Series Issue 93.

[228] Housing and Older People Development Group. (2006). Age equality in housing. Online: www.eukn.org/binaries/greatbritain/bulk/policy/2007/6/age-equality-leaflet.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

M. Nakagawa. ‘Why is there discrimination against the elderly: experimental and empirical analysis for the rental housing market in Japan? Institute of Social and Economic Research Discussion Paper, (578) 1-35. (2003).

[229] In Alberta, for example, Residential Tenancies Act R.S.A 2004 c. R‑17.1, s. 2 (2) ( g) and (h) excludes social care facilities and lodges . They are respectively covered by the Social Care Facilities Licensing Act. R.S.A. 2000, c. S-10 and the Alberta Housing Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. A. 25 (e) “lodge accommodation” means a home for the use of senior citizens who are not capable of maintaining or do not desire to maintain their own home, including services that may be provided to them because of their circumstances.

[230]Special Senate Committee on Aging. (April 2009).Canada’s aging population: seizing the opportunity. p. 48. Online : www.parl.gc.ca/40/2/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/agei-e/rep-e/AgingFinalReport-e.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[231] Fair Housing Act 42 U.S.C. §§ 3601 – 3619

[232] Age Discrimination Act of 1975. (42 U.S.C. Sections 6101-6107)

[233] American Foundation for the Blind. Coverage of age discrimination and disability discrimination laws. Online : www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=3&TopicID=32&DocumentID=4361 Accessed September 15, 2009.

[234]Charmaine Spencer. “Update on Steps to Safety and Security in Senior Rental Housing.” (March, 2001) 10 (2) Seniors Housing Update (SHUP), p. 20.

See also Ontario Human Rights Commission. Policy on age discrimination: ‘housing accommodation’ Online at: www.ohrc.on.ca/english/publications/age-policy_6.shtml

[235] Charmaine Spencer. Discrimination: The law and older adults. In Ann Soden (ed.) Advising the older client. (pp.251-304). LexisNexis Butterworths, Toronto. 2005.

[236]Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[237] Fear, T. et al. Home or Hell: Older tenants’ experiences in the private rented sector. (September 2004). Journal of Adult Protection, 6 (2), 15-20

[238] Nancy Carlton, Frances Heywood, Misa Izuhara, Jenny Pannell, Tina Fear and Robin Means. Harassment abuse of older people in the private rented sector. Policy Press: Bristol, UK. 2003.

[239] Lillian Morgentau. “President’s message.” Fifty Plus (Canadian Association of Retired Persons), 6. (2001, May).

[240] Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[241] Landlord and Tenant Board. Relief from eviction: refusing or delaying an eviction. Interpretation guideline #7. Online: www.ltb.gov.on.ca/en/Law/116335.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

[242] MacNeil et al. v. 976445 Ontario Ltd. (June 6, 2005), London Docket No. 04-1465 (Div. Ct.)

[243] Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[244] S. 11 (2) of Manitoba’s Residential Tenancies Act, S.M. 1990-91, c. R119 expressly acknowledges that land -lords can make rules “concerning the tenant’s use, occupancy, or maintenance of the rental unit or residential complex or service and facilities.” However, according to Manitoba law, the rule must be in writing, be made known to the tenant, and be reasonable in all the circumstances.

[245]Ann Welch. Submission to the Ontario Human Rights Commission. Housing discrimination. Citizens against Government Encroachment. ( 2007). Online: www.cagecanada.ca/index.php?pr=Your_Voice Accessed September 15, 2009.

[246] Ontario Human Rights Commission. “The intersection of age with other grounds of discrimination.”
Online at: www.ohrc.on.ca/english/publications/age-policy_3.shtml Accessed September 15, 2009.

[247] Ontario Human Rights Commission, “Policy on age discrimination”, Online at: www.ohrc.on.ca/english/publications/age-policy_1.shtml Accessed September 15, 2009.

[248] Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[249] Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[250] Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[251] Spencer, 2005 note 235.

[252] Social Housing Reform Act 2000, S.O. 2000, c. 27.

[253] Cooperative Housing Federation of Canada. Online: www.chfcanada.coop

[254] Batten, D. (1999). The mismatch argument: the construction of a housing orthodoxy in Australia. Urban Studies, 36, 137-151. Online : http://usj.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/36/1/137.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[255] Bone v. Mission Co-op Housing Association, 2008 BCHRT 122.

[256] Cooperative Housing Federation of Canada. Resolutions at CHF Canada’s 2006 annual meeting. Online: www.chfcanada.coop/eng/pages2007/resolution.asp?y=2006&r=4 Accessed September 15, 2009.

See also Resolutions at CHF Canada’s 2005 annual meeting. Online http://www.chfcanada.coop/eng/pages2007/resolution.asp?y=2005&r=L3 Accessed September 15, 2009.

[257] Waterloo Region Housing. Visitor and guest policy, p. 1. Online: www.region.waterloo.on.ca/web/region.nsf/97dfc347666efede85256e590071a3d4/A1B65D8247DB3DB3852571BC0050AE8A/$file/WRH_Visitor_and_Guest_Policy.pdf?openelement Accessed September 15, 2009.

[258] OHRC, Rental housing , note 226.

The commission notes: The rules seem to be aimed at “boyfriends” or partners whose incomes were not considered by the housing provider when calculating the subsidy amount.

[259] OHRC, Rental housing. Note 258, p. 15.

[260] (July 2005). Rent-Geared-to-Income Guide. Social Housing Program Administration, City of Toronto; s. 3:7. Online: www.toronto.ca/housing/social_housing/rgi/rgi-guide-july2005revision.pdf

[261] Tamar Lewin, Volatile mix in housing: elderly and mentally ill. New York Times. Monday, August 3, 1992. Online : www.nytimes.com/1992/08/03/us/volatile-mix-in-housing-elderly-and-mentally-ill.html?pagewanted=all Accessed September 15, 2009.

[262] The terminology used in Ontario is mixed mandated buildings and seniors mandated buildings.

The victimization and fear issues have been noted in some American research. See Roncek, D.W. (2002). Comparative analysis of victimization, fear of crime, and social-order problems in elderly-only and mixed-population public housing, Executive Summary. University of Nebraska – Omaha. National Institute of Justice/NCJRS 2002

[263] Mental Health and Seniors Pilot Project Comparative Analysis. See http://www.torontohousing.ca/mental_health_framework#mh_seniors Accessed September 15, 2009.

[264] Mental Health, note 264

[265] Residential Tenancies Act, 2006, O.R. 516/06, “Care service “ Reg 2 (2)

[266] Residential Tenancies Act, 2006, O.R. 516/06, Reg 2 (1)

[267] The package is to include a list of the different types of accommodation provided and the alternative packages of care services and meals available as part of the total charge; the charges for the different types of accommodation and for the alternative packages of care services and meals; minimum staffing levels and qualifications of staff; details of the emergency response system, if any, or a statement that there is no emergency response system; a list and fee schedule of the additional services and meals available from the landlord on a user pay basis; internal procedures, if any, for dealing with complaints, including a statement as to whether tenants have any right of appeal from an initial decision, or a statement that there is no internal procedure for dealing with complaints.

[268] RTA. s. 140 (2)

[269] Lisa Nerenberg. Elder abuse prevention. Emerging trends and promising strategies. New York, NY :

Springer Publishing. 2007, p. 227.

[270] Judith Wahl & Pauline Rosenbaum. (March 2007). Written Submission to the Ontario Seniors’ Secretariat concerning Ontario’s Consultation on Regulating the Retirement Home Industry, Advocacy Centre for the Elderly. pg. 3 Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/rh/ACE_Submission_to_Ontario_Seniors’_Secretariat_on_Retirement.pdf [Hereafter ACE, Retirement homes] Accessed September 15, 2009.

Also: ACE- LCO, 2008, note 128, p. 28.

[271] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270. Also ACE- LCO, 2008, note 107.

[272] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270. Also: ACE- LCO, 2008, note 107.

[273] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270.

[274] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270, p. 4

[275] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270.

[276] Mahoney, note 278

[277] RTA, s. 117

[278] RTA, s.149

[279] Elinor Mahoney (1997) Disabling tenants’ rights. Osgoode Hall Law Journal. 35 (4)711-720. (1997)Online: www.ohlj.ca/archive/articles/35_34_mahoney.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009. In this article Mahoney is referring to Ontario`s Tenant Protection Act. 1997 (the predecessor to the current tenancy law and which was in effect from June 17 1998 to January 30, 2007) . However the current Residential Tenancies Act, S.O. 2006. C. 17 Part IX Care Homes. s. 148 (1) has a similar provision.
[280] ACO-OSS, 2007, p. 3

[281] Residential Tenancies Act, S.O. 2006. c. 17 Part IX Care Homes. Mandatory mediation. S. 148 (3) states “If a dispute arises, the dispute shall be sent to mediation before the Board makes an order. “
[282] Mahoney, note 278.

[283] Mahoney, note 278.

[284] Ontario Human Rights Code. R. S.O. 1990 c. H 19, s. 1 and 2. (1)

[285]ACE, Retirement homes, note 270.

[286] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270. Also Romano, L., Wahl, J., & Meadus, J. (2008). The law as it affects older adults. Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario by Advocacy Centre for the Elderly. p. 11. Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_July_2008.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2009 [Hereafter ACE-LCO, 2008]

[287] ACE, Retirement homes, note 270.

[288] Isthatlegal. (April 2007). Residential landlord and tenant law (Ontario) Chapter 2 – Special and Exempt Premises. Online : www.isthatlegal.ca/index.php?name=special_exempt.tenant_law Accessed September 15, 2009.

[289] Residential Tenancies Act, 2006, O.R. 516/06, s. 3 (1)

[290] See Residential Tenancies Act, 2006, O. R. 516/06, Reg s.3(4).

[291] Paulsen v. Terra Property Management Ltd [2007] B.C.H.R.T.D. No. 471. Online : www.bchrt.bc.ca/decisions/2007/pdf/dec/471_Paulsen_v_Terra_Property_Management_and_others_2007_BCHRT_471.pdf

This was an application by the respondent not for profit property management company to dismiss the case. The Tribunal dismissed several parts of the complaint, but did permit the complainant to pursue the discrimination on marital status argument. No information available on the final result.

[292] See Jung v. Toronto Community Housing Corp [2007] O.J. No. 4363 and Jemiola v. Firchuk [2007] C.C.S. No. 15254.

The Advocacy Centre for Tenants Ontario (ACTO) acted as intervenor in the case involving Alba Torres a woman and her three children were being evicted as unauthorized occupants after her husband, who signed the rent cheques, moved out of the apartment. Before the Tribunal could reach a decision, a settlement was reached and the woman was recognized as the sole tenant at the same rent. The human rights complaint was withdrawn.

ACTO was also retained by the Women’s Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF) and the Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation (CERA) to intervene in an Ottawa Divisional Court appeal with very similar facts. In this case, after the woman’s husband had left, the landlord pressured her to sign a new lease at almost double the rent that her husband had paid. ACTO’s appeal emphasized international human rights law and sex equality issues. The appeal was successful, but the court did not address ACTO’s equality arguments under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The landlord was ordered to repay the tenant what she had paid in excess of the original rent.

[293] See Jung v. Toronto Community Housing Corp [2007] O.J. No. 4363 and Jemiola v. Firchuk [2007] C.C.S. No. 15254

[294] Ford v. Lavender Co-operative Housing Assn ( No.3) . [2009] B.C.H.R.T.D. No. 38. Online: www.bchrt.bc.ca/decisions/2009/pdf/jan/38_Ford_v_Lavender_Cooperative_(No_3)_2009_BCHRT_38.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[295] RTA, s. 148 (2)

[296] Psychiatric Patient Advocate Office. Position brief for the Housing Consultation to the Ontario Human Rights Commission. 2007. Online: www.ppao.gov.on.ca/pos-hou.html Accessed September 15, 2009. [Hereafter PPAO]

[297] Personal communication, Lorell Pride RN. Geriatric Outreach Program, Fraser Health.

[298] PPAO, note 295.

[299] PPAO, note 295.

[300] PPAO, note 295.

[301] ACE-LCO, 2008, note 286.

[302]Law Commission of Ontario. (May 2008). The Law As It Affects Older Adults, Consultation Paper:

Online: www.lco-cdo.org/en/documents/OlderAdultsMay08/documents/ConsultationPaper-OlderAdultsFINAL.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[303] Special Senate Committee on Aging (April 2009) Canada’s Aging Population: Seizing the Opportunity . p. 87 Online: www.parl.gc.ca/40/2/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/agei-e/rep-e/AgingFinalReport-e.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009

[304] Statistics Canada. Table 358-0124 – Canadian Internet use survey, Internet use, by location of access, sex and age group, every 2 years (percent), CANSIM (database).

[305] Rent geared to income guide. (2005) . Social Housing Program Administration, City of Toronto. Online: www.toronto.ca/housing/social_housing/rgi/rgi-guide-july2005revision.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[306] Charmaine Spencer. Immigration, capacity and abuse. Report for the Vanguard Collaborative and Law Foundation of BC. (2009).

[307]Ontarians with Disabilities Act ODA Committee. The Immediate Need for the Ontarians

With Disabilities Act -Now Is The Time For Action. Online: http://www.odacommittee.net/brief98c.html#why Accessed September 15, 2009.

Note : Ontario did enact Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2001, S.O. 2001, c. 32 which was replaced by the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005, S.O. 2005, c. 11.

[308] See for example Banghart v. Elgin Condominium Corp. No. 1 [2009] O.H.R.T.D. No. 11

[309] Banghart v. Elgin Condominium Corporation No. 1, 2009 HRTO 13.

[310] ACE-LCO, 2008, note 286.p. 34

[311] Ombudsman Ontario. Online: www.ombudsman.on.ca/

[312] John Stapleton (November 2007). Why is it so tough to get ahead? How our tangled social programs pathologize the transition to self-reliance. Metcalf Foundation. Online: www.metcalffoundation.com/downloads/John%20Stapleton%20-%20why%20is%20it%20so%20tough%20to%20get%20ahead.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

“Government watchdogs, such as ombudsmen and auditors, are charged with making governments and government-funded agencies accountable for their actions. Unfortunately, auditors and watchdog agencies of various sorts operate within the constraints of the prevailing government “business model.” This

model sees departments, ministries and agencies as “silos”, responsible for their own particular piece of the “business.” Auditors and watchdogs don’t necessarily look at the overall negative effects that government businesses are having on their clients. … It is simply not within their mandate to do so.”

[313] Jane R. Meadus and Lisa Romano, L. (March 26, 2009). Written Submission to the Standing Committee on Justice Policy: Bill 115, An Act to Amend the Coroners Act. Advocacy Centre for the Elderly. Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Bill_115_-_Coroners_Amendment_Act_-_March_2009.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[314] ACE –LCO, note 107, p. 18. Online: www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_July_2008.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[315]Health Services Appeal and Review Board. Online : www.hsarb.on.ca/english/default.htm Accessed September 15, 2009.

[316] M.A.M. v. Community Care Access Centre of Peel. HSARB. October 28, 2008. p. 6. Online: www.hsarb.on.ca/scripts/MOHShowUploadedFile_Public.asp?File_ID=2078

Also : J.C. v. Community Care Access Centre Grey Bruce. File LT 7113. HSARB. February 27, 2004. Online: www.hsarb.on.ca/scripts/MOHShowUploadedFile_Public.asp?File_ID=1206 Accessed September 15, 2009.

[317] M.A.M. note 316. Similarly see: GAW v KFL & A Community Care Access Centre. File LT7239. Online: www.hsarb.on.ca/scripts/MOHShowUploadedFile_Public.asp?File_ID=1434

[318] Community Legal Education Ontario. Home Care Bill of Rights. 2008. Online: www.cleo.on.ca/english/pub/onpub/PDF/health/hc-bor.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009 [Hereafter CLEO]

[319] CLEO, note 318.

[320] Contract remedies typically include : (1) compensatory damages (2) consequential and incidental damages (3) fees and costs (4) liquidated damages (5) specific performance (6) punitive damages ; (7) rescission and (8) reforming the contract . There is the possibility of an injunction, to stop an ongoing breach.

[321] Human Rights Citizenship and Multiculturalism Act, c. H-14 RSA 2000

[322] S. (6) (1) A person shall not deny to or discriminate against a person or class of persons with respect to accommodation, services, facilities or goods to which members of the public customarily have access or which are customarily offered to the public because of the race, religion, religious creed, political opinion, colour or ethnic, national or social origin, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, physical disability or mental disability of that person or class of persons.

[323] Human Rights Act, R.S.N.B c. H-11 s. 4 (3)

[324] Quebec (Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse) v. Montreal (City); Quebec (Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse) v. Boisbriand (City), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 665.

Facts of the two cases: In Mercier, a police officer with Crohn’s disease was fired. Crohn’s disease is a long standing inflammation of the intestine, which can be aggravated by stress and other factors; and the severity varies from individual to individual. Another complainant in Mercier had an anomaly of the spinal column, and was turned down for employment as a horticulturalist. The condition was asymptomatic, but was perceived by the prospective employer as increasing the risk for future incapacity.

[325] Manitoba Human Rights Commission. Defining physical and mental disability. Policy # L-5 Policy and Procedures Manual, p. 1-4. Online: www.gov.mb.ca/hrc/english/publications/policies/L5.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[326] Ontario Human Rights Commission. An Intersectional Approach To Discrimination- Addressing Multiple Grounds in Human Rights Claims. 2001. Online: www.ohrc.on.ca/en/resources/discussion_consultation/DissIntersectionalityFtnts/pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

C.A. Parks, T.L. Hughes, and A.K. Matthews. Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation: Intersecting identities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2004 – Educational Publishing Foundation

[327] M. Meyer-Harrington. “Gender, race and the distribution of social assistance: Medicaid use among the frail elderly”. (March, 199 4), Gender and Society, 8 (1), 8-28.

[328] Ontario Human Rights Commission. An Intersectional Approach To Discrimination- Addressing Multiple Grounds in Human Rights Claims. 2001. Online: www.ohrc.on.ca/en/resources/discussion_consultation/DissIntersectionalityFtnts/pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

C.A. Parks, T.L. Hughes, and A.K. Matthews. Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation: Intersecting identities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Educational Publishing Foundation, 2004.

[329] Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. Intersectional Feminist Frameworks An Emerging Vision 2006. Online: www.criaw-icref.ca/CRIAW%20Focus/The%20IFFs-%20An%20Emerging%20Vision_e.pdf

[330] See: “Barbara Hall contradicts Attorney General’s claim she supports his human rights reform proposal.” April 13, 2006. www.cleonet.ca/external.php?external_url=http://dawn.thot.net/dawn-ohrc8.html Accessed September 15, 2009.

Urban Alliance on Race Relations rejects the ‘direct access’ model to the Ontario Human Rights Commission. Online www.opseu.org/campaign/ohrc/ohrcpressrelease.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[331] See Justice for children and Youth. BILL 107 – Human Rights Code Amendment Act. Qualified support for the direct access model June 20, 2006. Online www.jfcy.org/PDFs/Bill_107_Brief.pdf and Advocacy Centre for Tenants Ontario. Online : www.acto.ca/docs/LR_HumanRightsReform_MediaBackgrounder_0107.pdf

[332] Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act Alliance. (AODAA) Brief to standing committee on government agencies reveals broken government commitments on reforms to human rights enforcement. (February 12, 2009). Online: www.aodaalliance.org/strong-effective-aoda/02122009.asp Accessed September 15, 2009. [Hereafter AODAA]

See also: Native Women’s Association of Canada and Ontario Native Women’s Association. The proposed “direct access” model equals less access to human rights for the most marginalized and disadvantaged in Ontario! Online: www.nwac-hq.org/documents/NWACONWA_Joint_Submission_SCJPBill107.pdf Accessed September 15, 2009.

[333] AODAA, note 332.

[334] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Social Policy and Development

Programme on Ageing Report of the Expert Group Meeting “Rights of Older Persons” Convened in preparation for the report of the Secretary-General to the 64th session of the General Assembly 5-7 May 2009, Bonn, Germany.

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