[1] Granovsky v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703, 2000 SCC 28, at para. 30.

[2] Granovsky v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703, 2000 SCC 28 at paras. 30 and 37. See also, D. Surtees “What Can Elder Law Learn From Disability Law?” in I. Dorn. Ed., Theories on Law and Ageing: The Jurisprudence of Elder Law (Berlin: Springer Publications, 2009).

[3] (2008) Law Commission of Ontario, Older Adult PreStudy Consultation Report (page 18).

[4] (2008) Ontario Bar Association, The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario (p. 11).

[5] Ontario Human Rights Commission Time for Action: Advancing Human Rights for Older Ontarians (Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2008) (Page 15-16).

[6] See Andrews v. Law Society of British Columbia, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 143.

[7] Eaton v. Brant County Board of Education, [1997] 1 S.C.R. 241 at para. 67.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Chapdelaine v. Air Canada (1987), 9 C.H.R.R. D/4449 (C.H.R.T.); Bitonti v. British Columbia (Ministry of Health) (No. 3), (1999), 36 C.H.R.R. D/263; British Columbia (Public Service Employee Relations Commission) v. B.C.G.S.E.U., [1999] 3 S.C.R. 3. See discussion, Pivot Legal Society v. Downtown Vancouver Business Improvement Association, 2009 BCHRT 229.

[10] Granovsky v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703, 2000 SCC 28.

[11] Resolution 46/91.

[12] Canadian Coalition on the Rights of the Child, “The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: How Does Canada Measure Up?” 1999 and International Institute for Child Rights and Development Meeting Canada’s Obligations under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: From Paper Concepts to Living Benefits for Children , Brief to Canada’s Senate Committee on Human Rights (2005). It has been suggested that evaluation of this kind would be one function of a federal Ombudsman for Older Adults- see Paris Principles; UN General Assembly, Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Resolution A/RES/134 (20 Dec. 1993)

[13] http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/madrid_recommendations.html

[14] See Addressing the challenges and opportunities of ageing in Canada, Prepared for the United Nations Commission for Social Development for the 5th Anniversary of the 2002 United Nations Second World Assembly on Ageing (2002: Government of Canada).

[15] The National Framework is available from Health Canada, Health Promotions and Programs Branch, Division of Aging and Seniors and online: Health Canada www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/nfa-cnv/.

[16] Ontario Human Rights Commission Time for Action: Advancing Human Rights for Older Ontarians (Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2008) (Page 14).

[17] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly, Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario Concerning: The Law As It Affects Older Adults, at 5 http:// www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_July_2008.pdf.

[18] Ibid.

[19] R. v Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103.

[20] Section 32(1). See, R.W.D.S.U. Local 580 v Dolphin Delivery Ltd. [1986] 2 S.C.R. 483.

[21] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 483.

[22] [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624..

[23] Eldridge, [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624 at 665.

[24] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229.

[25] Gosselin v. Quebec (Attorney General), [2002] 4 S.C.R. 429, 2002 SCC 84

at para. 31-32.

[26] [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497.

[27] Ibid., paras. 51 and 53.

[28] Gosselin v. Quebec (Attorney General), [2002] 4 S.C.R. 429, 2002 SCC 84

at para. 32

[29] [1989] 1 S.C.R. 143, at p. 169.

[30] [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624

[31] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229.

[32] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 483.

[33] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 451.

[34] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 570.

[35] (2008), 292 D.L.R. (4th) 623. See also, Vilven v. Air Canada, 2009 FC 367.
[36] Ibid., para. 38 and 45, per G.R. Strathy J.

[37] [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497.

[38] (2008), 292 D.L.R. (4th) 623

[39] Ibid., at para. 178.

[40] Lovelace v. Ontario, [2000] 1 S.C.R. 950 at para. 105.

[41] 2008 SCC 41.

[42] Ibid., at para. 37.

[43] R. v. Beare, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 387 at para. 28.

[44] Godbout v. Longueuil (City), [1997] 3 S.C.R. 844; see also B. (R.) v. Children’s Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, [1995] 1 S.C.R. 315.

[45] New Brunswick (Minister of Health and Community Services) v. G.(J.), [1999] 3 SCR 46.

[46] Fleming v. Reid (1991), 82 DLR (4th) 298 (Ont. C.A.); Conway v. Jacques, [2002] O.J. No. 2333 (Ont.C.A.), (2001), 32 Admin.L.R.(3d) 248 (S.C.J.), leave to appeal to S.C.C. refused [2002] S.C.C.A. No. 341

[47] Ibid.

[48] Health Care Consent Act, S.O. 1996, c.2, Section 21(1) 1.

[49] Ibid., Section 21(1)2 and 21(2).

[50] See, Report on Inquest into the Death of Cory Clifford Moar, May 14, 2003, Provincial Court of Manitoba.

[51] See Manitoba Law Reform Commission Report, Adult Protection and Elder Abuse (Report #103) (Winnipeg, 1999) at 62 http://www.manitoba.ca/ justice/mlrc/report/103.pdf; C.(A.L.G.) v Prince Edward Island (1998), 157 D.L.R. (4th) 523 (P.E.I.S.C.T.D.); Baril v. Obelnicki, 2004 MBQB 92
[52] Blencoe v. British Columbia (Human Rights Commission), [2000] 2 S.C.R. 307, 2000 SCC 44.

[53] M.A. v. Benes (1999), 46 O.R. (3d) 271 (C.A.) at para. 38.

[54] 2007 CanLII 44704 (ON C.C.B.).
[55] [1993] AC 789.

[56] Per Lord Butler-Sloss, quoting from Re Conroy, (1985) NJ 321, 398-399. Both Bland and Conroy involved patients in a persistent vegetative state with no prospect of recovery.

[57] M.A. v. Benes (1999), 46 O.R. (3d) 271 (C.A.) at para. 42.

[58] M.A. v. Benes (1999), 46 O.R. (3d) 271 (C.A.) (Health Care and Consent); Scardoni v. Hawryluck, Superior Court of Justice file 03-94/03; 2004 CanLII 34326 (ON S.C.) (Substitute Decisions Act).

[59] Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General), [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519.

[60] R. v. Broyles, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 595.

[61] R. v. Morgentaler, [1988] 1 S.C.R. 30.

[62] R. v. Heywood, [1994] 3 S.C.R. 761.

[63] 2005 CanLII 47735 (Ont. S.C.). See also Re Koch, 1997 CanLII 12138 (On. S.C.).

[64] R. v. Grant, 2009 SCC 32 at para. 44. See also, R v Thomsen,[1988] 1 S.C.R. 640.

[65] 2006 ABQB 528.

[66] P. W. Hogg, Constitutional Law of Canada (loose-leaf ed.), vol. 2, at p. 46; Charkaoui v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), [2007] 1 S.C.R. 350, 2007 SCC 9.

[67] Charkaoui v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2007 SCC 9, [2007] 1 S.C.R. 350, at para. 88.

[68] R. v. Grant, 2009 SCC 32 at para. 54.

[69] Thwaites v. Health Sciences Centre Psychiatric Facility (1988), 48 D.L.R. (4th) 338 (Man. C.A.). See also, Lussa c. Health Sciences Centre (1983), 9 C.R.R. 350 (Man. Q.B.), 5 C.H.R.R. D/2203.

[70] C.C.S.M. c. M110.

[71] Bobbie v. Health Science Centre, [1989] 2 W.W.R. 153 (Man QB).

[72] McCorkell v. Riverview Hospital Review Panel (1993), 104 D.L.R. (4th) 391 (B.C.S.C.)

[73] Ibid.

[74] 2005 CanLII 47735 (Ont. S.C.).

[75] Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General) [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519.

[76] Chiarelli v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1992] 1 S.C.R. 711.

[77] Howlett v. Karunaratne (1988), 64 O.R. (2d) 418.

[78] Re McTavish and Director, Child Welfare Act (1986), 32 D.L.R. (4th) 394 (Alta. Q.B.),

[79]R. v. Smith, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 1045, at p. 1072; Harvey v. New Brunswick (Attorney General), [1996] 2 S.C.R. 876 Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General) [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519; Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and the Law v. Canada (Attorney General), [2004] 1 S.C.R. 76, 2004 SCC 4.

[80] Adapted from Madam Justice Wilson’s dissent in McKinney.

[81] Canada Health Act ( R.S., 1985, c. C-6 ).

[82] S.O. 1996, c. 2.

[83] S.O. 1992, c. 30.

[84] S.O. 1992, c. 31.

[85] S.O. 1992, c. 30.

[86] S.O. 1992, c. 26.

[87] “Personal Assistance Services” are defined in section 2 to mean “assistance with or supervision of hygiene, washing, dressing, grooming, eating, drinking, elimination, ambulation, positioning or any other routine activity of living, and includes a group of personal assistance services or a plan setting out personal assistance services to be provided to a person, but does not include anything prescribed by the regulations as not constituting a personal assistance service.”

[88] See also, A Comparative Analysis of Adult Guardianship Laws in BC, New Zealand and Ontario, CCELS Report No. 4 http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/PubDocs/ bcdocs/408281/Comparative_Analysis_ Guardianship_Laws.pdf

[89] R. Gordon & S. Verdun-Jones, Adult Guardianship Law in Canada (Toronto: Carswell, 1992) at 6-38.

[90] Wahl, J. Capacity and Capacity Assessment in Ontario, paper prepared for the CBA Elderlaw Programme March 24-25 2006. http://www.practicepro.ca/practice /PDF/Backip_Capacity.pdf

[91] Health Care Consent Act, S.O. 1996, c. 2, Section 10(1).

[92] See also Evaluators, O.Reg 104/96.

[93] http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/family/pgt/capacity/2005-05/guide

[93] Re Koch (1997), 33 O.R. 485 (Gen. Div).

[94] Sections 78(2)(b) and (c).

[95] Re Koch (1997), 33 O.R. 485 (Gen. Div); Saunders v. Bridgeport Hospital, 2005 CanLII 47735 (Ont. S.C.).

[96] HCCA section 80.

[97] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly (2008) The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario http://www.advocacycentre elderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_ July_2008.pdf at page 6.

[98] at 12.

[99] Ibid.

[100] (2008) Ontario Bar Association, The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario http://www.oba.org/en/pdf/older_adults_lco.pdf

at 4.

[101] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly (2008) The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario http://www.advocacycentre elderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_ July_2008.pdf at page 18-19.

[102] Mental health legislation is relevant to many of these issues, but is beyond the scope of this study.

[103] Dependent Adults Act R.S.A. 2000, c. D-11; Adult Guardianship and Trusteeship Act, c. A- 4.2 (awaiting proclamation); Infirm Persons Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. I-8; Mentally Disabled Persons Estates Act, R.S.N.L. 1990, c. M-10; Incompetent Persons Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 218; Public Curator Act, S.Q. c. C-81; Civil Code of Quebec, S.Q. 1991, c. 64 (art. 11-25, Integrity of the Person- Care; art. 256-297 Protective Supervision of Persons of Full Age); Adult Guardianship and Co-decision-making Act , S.S. 2000, c. A-5.3; Patients Property Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 349; Adult Guardianship Act (Part 2) R.S.B.C. c. 6 (awaiting proclamation); Mental Health Act C.C.S.M. c. M110; Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90; Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act, S.Y. 2003, c. 21; (applies also in Nunavut); Guardianship and Trusteeship Act, S.N.W.T. 1994, c. 29; Substitute Decisions Act, S.O. 1992, c. 30.

[104] Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-20; Powers of Attorney Act, C.C.S.M. c. P-97; Enduring Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.N.L. 1990, c. E-11; Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 352; Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. P-16; Power of Attorney Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 370; Powers of Attorney Act, S.S. 2002, c. P-20.3; Property Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. P-19; Enduring Power of Attorney Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 73; Powers of Attorney Act, S.N.W.T. 2001, c.15; Powers of Attorney Act S.Nu. 2005, c. 9; Substitute Decisions Act, S.O. 1992, c. 30; Civil Code of Quebec, S.Q. 1991, c. 64 art. 2130-2185 (mandate).

[105] Representation Agreement Act, [R.S.B.C. 1996] c. 405; Personal Directives Act S.N.W.T. 2005, c. 16; Personal Directives Act, R.S.A 2000, c. P-6; Advance Health Care Directives Act S.N.L. 1995, c. A-4.1.

[106] SY 2003, c. 21.

[107] R.S.A. 2000, c. P-6.

[108] S.S. 1997, c. H0.001.

[109] S.N.L. 1995, c. A-4.1.

[110] Health Care Directives Act, C.C.S.M. c. H27; Medical Consent Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 279;Consent to Treatment and Health Care Directives Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. C-17.2; Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act, S.Y. 2003, c. 21 (applies also in Nunavut);

An Act Respecting Health Services and Social Services, RSQ c. S-4.2; Health Care Directive and Substitute Health Care Decision Makers Act, S.S. 1997, c. H-0.001; Health Care (Consent) and Care Facility (Admission) Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 181; Advance Health Care Directives Act, S.N.L. 1995 A-4.1; Infirm Persons Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. I-8; Health Care Consent Act S.O. 1996, c. 2.

[111] As in Saskatchewan’s Health Care Directive and Substitute Health Care Decision Makers Act, SS 1997, c. H0.001.

[112] Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90.

[113] Mental Health Act C.C.S.M. c. M110

[114] The Alberta Act proclaimed in 1978 was the first Canadian “reform” adult guardianship legislation; Law Reform Commission of No