Endnotes2017-03-03T18:30:48+00:00
[1] Granovsky v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703, 2000 SCC 28, at para. 30.

[2] Granovsky v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703, 2000 SCC 28 at paras. 30 and 37. See also, D. Surtees “What Can Elder Law Learn From Disability Law?” in I. Dorn. Ed., Theories on Law and Ageing: The Jurisprudence of Elder Law (Berlin: Springer Publications, 2009).

[3] (2008) Law Commission of Ontario, Older Adult PreStudy Consultation Report (page 18).

[4] (2008) Ontario Bar Association, The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario (p. 11).

[5] Ontario Human Rights Commission Time for Action: Advancing Human Rights for Older Ontarians (Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2008) (Page 15-16).

[6] See Andrews v. Law Society of British Columbia, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 143.

[7] Eaton v. Brant County Board of Education, [1997] 1 S.C.R. 241 at para. 67.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Chapdelaine v. Air Canada (1987), 9 C.H.R.R. D/4449 (C.H.R.T.); Bitonti v. British Columbia (Ministry of Health) (No. 3), (1999), 36 C.H.R.R. D/263; British Columbia (Public Service Employee Relations Commission) v. B.C.G.S.E.U., [1999] 3 S.C.R. 3. See discussion, Pivot Legal Society v. Downtown Vancouver Business Improvement Association, 2009 BCHRT 229.

[10] Granovsky v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703, 2000 SCC 28.

[11] Resolution 46/91.

[12] Canadian Coalition on the Rights of the Child, “The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: How Does Canada Measure Up?” 1999 and International Institute for Child Rights and Development Meeting Canada’s Obligations under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: From Paper Concepts to Living Benefits for Children , Brief to Canada’s Senate Committee on Human Rights (2005). It has been suggested that evaluation of this kind would be one function of a federal Ombudsman for Older Adults- see Paris Principles; UN General Assembly, Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Resolution A/RES/134 (20 Dec. 1993)

[13] http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/madrid_recommendations.html

[14] See Addressing the challenges and opportunities of ageing in Canada, Prepared for the United Nations Commission for Social Development for the 5th Anniversary of the 2002 United Nations Second World Assembly on Ageing (2002: Government of Canada).

[15] The National Framework is available from Health Canada, Health Promotions and Programs Branch, Division of Aging and Seniors and online: Health Canada www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/nfa-cnv/.

[16] Ontario Human Rights Commission Time for Action: Advancing Human Rights for Older Ontarians (Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2008) (Page 14).

[17] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly, Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario Concerning: The Law As It Affects Older Adults, at 5 http:// www.advocacycentreelderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_July_2008.pdf.

[18] Ibid.

[19] R. v Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103.

[20] Section 32(1). See, R.W.D.S.U. Local 580 v Dolphin Delivery Ltd. [1986] 2 S.C.R. 483.

[21] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 483.

[22] [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624..

[23] Eldridge, [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624 at 665.

[24] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229.

[25] Gosselin v. Quebec (Attorney General), [2002] 4 S.C.R. 429, 2002 SCC 84

at para. 31-32.

[26] [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497.

[27] Ibid., paras. 51 and 53.

[28] Gosselin v. Quebec (Attorney General), [2002] 4 S.C.R. 429, 2002 SCC 84

at para. 32

[29] [1989] 1 S.C.R. 143, at p. 169.

[30] [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624

[31] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229.

[32] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 483.

[33] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 451.

[34] [1990] 3 S.C.R. 570.

[35] (2008), 292 D.L.R. (4th) 623. See also, Vilven v. Air Canada, 2009 FC 367.
[36] Ibid., para. 38 and 45, per G.R. Strathy J.

[37] [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497.

[38] (2008), 292 D.L.R. (4th) 623

[39] Ibid., at para. 178.

[40] Lovelace v. Ontario, [2000] 1 S.C.R. 950 at para. 105.

[41] 2008 SCC 41.

[42] Ibid., at para. 37.

[43] R. v. Beare, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 387 at para. 28.

[44] Godbout v. Longueuil (City), [1997] 3 S.C.R. 844; see also B. (R.) v. Children’s Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, [1995] 1 S.C.R. 315.

[45] New Brunswick (Minister of Health and Community Services) v. G.(J.), [1999] 3 SCR 46.

[46] Fleming v. Reid (1991), 82 DLR (4th) 298 (Ont. C.A.); Conway v. Jacques, [2002] O.J. No. 2333 (Ont.C.A.), (2001), 32 Admin.L.R.(3d) 248 (S.C.J.), leave to appeal to S.C.C. refused [2002] S.C.C.A. No. 341

[47] Ibid.

[48] Health Care Consent Act, S.O. 1996, c.2, Section 21(1) 1.

[49] Ibid., Section 21(1)2 and 21(2).

[50] See, Report on Inquest into the Death of Cory Clifford Moar, May 14, 2003, Provincial Court of Manitoba.

[51] See Manitoba Law Reform Commission Report, Adult Protection and Elder Abuse (Report #103) (Winnipeg, 1999) at 62 http://www.manitoba.ca/ justice/mlrc/report/103.pdf; C.(A.L.G.) v Prince Edward Island (1998), 157 D.L.R. (4th) 523 (P.E.I.S.C.T.D.); Baril v. Obelnicki, 2004 MBQB 92
[52] Blencoe v. British Columbia (Human Rights Commission), [2000] 2 S.C.R. 307, 2000 SCC 44.

[53] M.A. v. Benes (1999), 46 O.R. (3d) 271 (C.A.) at para. 38.

[54] 2007 CanLII 44704 (ON C.C.B.).
[55] [1993] AC 789.

[56] Per Lord Butler-Sloss, quoting from Re Conroy, (1985) NJ 321, 398-399. Both Bland and Conroy involved patients in a persistent vegetative state with no prospect of recovery.

[57] M.A. v. Benes (1999), 46 O.R. (3d) 271 (C.A.) at para. 42.

[58] M.A. v. Benes (1999), 46 O.R. (3d) 271 (C.A.) (Health Care and Consent); Scardoni v. Hawryluck, Superior Court of Justice file 03-94/03; 2004 CanLII 34326 (ON S.C.) (Substitute Decisions Act).

[59] Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General), [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519.

[60] R. v. Broyles, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 595.

[61] R. v. Morgentaler, [1988] 1 S.C.R. 30.

[62] R. v. Heywood, [1994] 3 S.C.R. 761.

[63] 2005 CanLII 47735 (Ont. S.C.). See also Re Koch, 1997 CanLII 12138 (On. S.C.).

[64] R. v. Grant, 2009 SCC 32 at para. 44. See also, R v Thomsen,[1988] 1 S.C.R. 640.

[65] 2006 ABQB 528.

[66] P. W. Hogg, Constitutional Law of Canada (loose-leaf ed.), vol. 2, at p. 46; Charkaoui v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), [2007] 1 S.C.R. 350, 2007 SCC 9.

[67] Charkaoui v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2007 SCC 9, [2007] 1 S.C.R. 350, at para. 88.

[68] R. v. Grant, 2009 SCC 32 at para. 54.

[69] Thwaites v. Health Sciences Centre Psychiatric Facility (1988), 48 D.L.R. (4th) 338 (Man. C.A.). See also, Lussa c. Health Sciences Centre (1983), 9 C.R.R. 350 (Man. Q.B.), 5 C.H.R.R. D/2203.

[70] C.C.S.M. c. M110.

[71] Bobbie v. Health Science Centre, [1989] 2 W.W.R. 153 (Man QB).

[72] McCorkell v. Riverview Hospital Review Panel (1993), 104 D.L.R. (4th) 391 (B.C.S.C.)

[73] Ibid.

[74] 2005 CanLII 47735 (Ont. S.C.).

[75] Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General) [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519.

[76] Chiarelli v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1992] 1 S.C.R. 711.

[77] Howlett v. Karunaratne (1988), 64 O.R. (2d) 418.

[78] Re McTavish and Director, Child Welfare Act (1986), 32 D.L.R. (4th) 394 (Alta. Q.B.),

[79]R. v. Smith, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 1045, at p. 1072; Harvey v. New Brunswick (Attorney General), [1996] 2 S.C.R. 876 Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General) [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519; Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and the Law v. Canada (Attorney General), [2004] 1 S.C.R. 76, 2004 SCC 4.

[80] Adapted from Madam Justice Wilson’s dissent in McKinney.

[81] Canada Health Act ( R.S., 1985, c. C-6 ).

[82] S.O. 1996, c. 2.

[83] S.O. 1992, c. 30.

[84] S.O. 1992, c. 31.

[85] S.O. 1992, c. 30.

[86] S.O. 1992, c. 26.

[87] “Personal Assistance Services” are defined in section 2 to mean “assistance with or supervision of hygiene, washing, dressing, grooming, eating, drinking, elimination, ambulation, positioning or any other routine activity of living, and includes a group of personal assistance services or a plan setting out personal assistance services to be provided to a person, but does not include anything prescribed by the regulations as not constituting a personal assistance service.”

[88] See also, A Comparative Analysis of Adult Guardianship Laws in BC, New Zealand and Ontario, CCELS Report No. 4 http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/PubDocs/ bcdocs/408281/Comparative_Analysis_ Guardianship_Laws.pdf

[89] R. Gordon & S. Verdun-Jones, Adult Guardianship Law in Canada (Toronto: Carswell, 1992) at 6-38.

[90] Wahl, J. Capacity and Capacity Assessment in Ontario, paper prepared for the CBA Elderlaw Programme March 24-25 2006. http://www.practicepro.ca/practice /PDF/Backip_Capacity.pdf

[91] Health Care Consent Act, S.O. 1996, c. 2, Section 10(1).

[92] See also Evaluators, O.Reg 104/96.

[93] http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/family/pgt/capacity/2005-05/guide

[93] Re Koch (1997), 33 O.R. 485 (Gen. Div).

[94] Sections 78(2)(b) and (c).

[95] Re Koch (1997), 33 O.R. 485 (Gen. Div); Saunders v. Bridgeport Hospital, 2005 CanLII 47735 (Ont. S.C.).

[96] HCCA section 80.

[97] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly (2008) The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario http://www.advocacycentre elderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_ July_2008.pdf at page 6.

[98] at 12.

[99] Ibid.

[100] (2008) Ontario Bar Association, The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario http://www.oba.org/en/pdf/older_adults_lco.pdf

at 4.

[101] Advocacy Centre for the Elderly (2008) The Law as it Affects Older Adults Submission to the Law Commission of Ontario http://www.advocacycentre elderly.org/pubs/Law_as_it_Affects_Older_Adults_ July_2008.pdf at page 18-19.

[102] Mental health legislation is relevant to many of these issues, but is beyond the scope of this study.

[103] Dependent Adults Act R.S.A. 2000, c. D-11; Adult Guardianship and Trusteeship Act, c. A- 4.2 (awaiting proclamation); Infirm Persons Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. I-8; Mentally Disabled Persons Estates Act, R.S.N.L. 1990, c. M-10; Incompetent Persons Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 218; Public Curator Act, S.Q. c. C-81; Civil Code of Quebec, S.Q. 1991, c. 64 (art. 11-25, Integrity of the Person- Care; art. 256-297 Protective Supervision of Persons of Full Age); Adult Guardianship and Co-decision-making Act , S.S. 2000, c. A-5.3; Patients Property Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 349; Adult Guardianship Act (Part 2) R.S.B.C. c. 6 (awaiting proclamation); Mental Health Act C.C.S.M. c. M110; Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90; Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act, S.Y. 2003, c. 21; (applies also in Nunavut); Guardianship and Trusteeship Act, S.N.W.T. 1994, c. 29; Substitute Decisions Act, S.O. 1992, c. 30.

[104] Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-20; Powers of Attorney Act, C.C.S.M. c. P-97; Enduring Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.N.L. 1990, c. E-11; Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 352; Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. P-16; Power of Attorney Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 370; Powers of Attorney Act, S.S. 2002, c. P-20.3; Property Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. P-19; Enduring Power of Attorney Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 73; Powers of Attorney Act, S.N.W.T. 2001, c.15; Powers of Attorney Act S.Nu. 2005, c. 9; Substitute Decisions Act, S.O. 1992, c. 30; Civil Code of Quebec, S.Q. 1991, c. 64 art. 2130-2185 (mandate).

[105] Representation Agreement Act, [R.S.B.C. 1996] c. 405; Personal Directives Act S.N.W.T. 2005, c. 16; Personal Directives Act, R.S.A 2000, c. P-6; Advance Health Care Directives Act S.N.L. 1995, c. A-4.1.

[106] SY 2003, c. 21.

[107] R.S.A. 2000, c. P-6.

[108] S.S. 1997, c. H0.001.

[109] S.N.L. 1995, c. A-4.1.

[110] Health Care Directives Act, C.C.S.M. c. H27; Medical Consent Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 279;Consent to Treatment and Health Care Directives Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. C-17.2; Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act, S.Y. 2003, c. 21 (applies also in Nunavut);

An Act Respecting Health Services and Social Services, RSQ c. S-4.2; Health Care Directive and Substitute Health Care Decision Makers Act, S.S. 1997, c. H-0.001; Health Care (Consent) and Care Facility (Admission) Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 181; Advance Health Care Directives Act, S.N.L. 1995 A-4.1; Infirm Persons Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. I-8; Health Care Consent Act S.O. 1996, c. 2.

[111] As in Saskatchewan’s Health Care Directive and Substitute Health Care Decision Makers Act, SS 1997, c. H0.001.

[112] Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90.

[113] Mental Health Act C.C.S.M. c. M110

[114] The Alberta Act proclaimed in 1978 was the first Canadian “reform” adult guardianship legislation; Law Reform Commission of Nova Scotia Reform of the Laws Dealing with Adult Guardianship and Personal Health Care Decisions: Final Report (Halifax, NS: The Commission, 1995).

[115] R. Gordon & S. Verdun-Jones, Adult Guardianship Law in Canada (Toronto: Carswell, 1992) at 6-38.

[116] See also, proposed legislation in Alberta (Adult Guardianship and Trusteeship Act, c. A- 4.2) and British Columbia (Adult Guardianship Act (Part 2) R.S.B.C. c. 6).

[117] A “patient” is defined in section 1(a) as a person “who is, because of mental infirmity arising from disease, age , or otherwise, incapable of managing his or her affairs.”

[118] Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90.

[119] See, Powers of Attorney Act, S.S. 2002, c. P-20.3; Substitute Decisions Act, S.O. 1992, c. 30; Enduring Powers of Attorney Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 73.

[120] See Alberta Law Reform Institute Enduring Powers of Attorney: Safeguards Against Abuse, Final Report No. 88 (2003: Edmonton, Alberta) http://www.law.ualberta.ca/alri/. See also, Western Canada Law Reform Agencies, Enduring Powers of Attorney: Areas for Reform, Final Report, 2008. http://prejury.law.ualberta.ca/alri/docs/WCLRA-EPA%report.pdf.

[121] Re K , [1988] 1 All ER. (H.L.) at 363.

[122] Egli v Egli 2005 BCCA 267.

[123] Substitute Decisions Act S.O. 1992, c.30. (personal power of attorney) and Health Care Directive and Substitute Health Care Decision Makers Act, S.S. 1997, c. H0.001, e.g.

[124] Advance Health Care Directives Act S.N.L. 1995, c. A-4.1; Medical Consent Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 279.

[125] The Capability and Consent Board established under the Care Consent Act (Schedule B to the Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act).

[126] Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90.

[127] Mental Health Act C.C.S.M. c. M110

[128] The Health Care Directives Act, S.M. 1992, c. 33 applies to decision-making with regards to health care.

[129] L. Watts & K. Zakreski “Powers of Attorney: Moving Towards Best practices in Canada” paper given at the CBA Canadian Legal Conference, St. John’s, August 13-15 2006; R.M. Gordon “Material Abuse and Powers of Attorney in Canada: A Preliminary Examination” (1992) J. Elder Abuse & Neglect 173.

[130] Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act, S.Y. 2003, c. 21, applicable also in Nunavut.

[131] R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 181.

[132] Bearing in mind legislative changes pending in British Columbia and Alberta.

[133] Health Canada has defined psychological abuse as “psychosocial abuse.”

[134] Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults: A Discussion Paper (Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2005).

[135] See the Report of the Manitoba Law Reform Commission, Adult Protection and Elder Abuse, Report #103 (Winnipeg, MB: Government of Manitoba, 1999) at 15.

[136] Tuerkheimer, D., (2004) 94 “Recognising and remedying the harm of battering: a call to criminalise domestic violence” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 959.

[137] Protection Against Family Violence Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-27; Domestic Violence and Stalking Act, C.C.S.M. c. D93; Victims of Domestic Violence Act, S.S. 1994, c. V-6.02; Victims of Family Violence Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c.V-3.2; Family Violence Prevention Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 84; Protection Against Family Violence Act, S.N.W.T. 2003, c. 24; Family Abuse Intervention Act, S.Nu. 2006, c. 18; Domestic Violence Intervention Act, S.N.S. 2001, c. 29; Family Violence Protection Act, S.N.L. 2005, c. F-3.1.

[138] As stated in the Victims of Family Violence Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c.V-3.2.

[139] Adult Guardianship Act (Part Three), R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 6.; Vulnerable Persons Living with a Mental Disability Act, C.C.S.M. c. V90; Adult Protection Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 2; Adult Protection Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c.A-5.; Decision-Making Support and Protection to Adults Act, (Schedule A, Part 4 Adult Protection) S.Y. 2003, c. 21; Neglected Adults Welfare Act, R.S.N.L. 1990, c. N-3.

[140] S.N.B. 1980, c. F-2.2.

[141] L.R.Q. c. C-12.

[142] Adult Guardianship Act (Part Three), R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 6; Protection for Persons in Care Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-29; Protection for Persons in Care Act, C.C.S.M. c. P144; Protection for Persons in Care Act, S.N.S. 2004, c. 33; Protection for Persons in Care Regulations, N.S. Reg. 364/2007, s. 3; Adult Care Regulations, B.C. Reg. 536/80.

[143] Nursing Homes Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. N.7; Homes for the Aged and Rest Homes Act, R.S.O. 1990, s. H.13; Charitable Institutions Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. C9.

[144] Macolini, R. M. (1995). Elder abuse policy: Considerations in research and legislation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 13, 349-

[145] Ibid.

[146] R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 6.

[147] C.C.S.M c. V90.

[148] R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 2

[149] R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c.A-5.

[150] S.Y. 2003, c. 21

[151] R.S.N.L. 1990, c. N-3.

[152] S.N.B. 1980, c. F-2.2.

[153] Québec (Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse) v. Brzozowski, [1994] RJQ 1947.

[154] Protection for Persons in Care Act, C.C.S.M. c. P144; Protection for Persons in Care Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-29; Protection for Persons in Care Act, S.N.S. 2004, c. 33; Adult Care Regulations, B.C. Reg. 536/80.

See also, in Saskatchewan, Bill 205 (2002), An Act respecting the Protection of Persons in Care.

[155] See also, Victims of Family Violence Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. V-3.2 (Prince Edward Island)

[156] See also, the Family Violence Prevention Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 84 (Yukon).

[157] See also, Victims of Domestic Violence Act, S.S. 1994, c. V-6.02 (Saskatchewan).

[158] A “care relationship” is defined in section 6 as “exist[ing] between two persons,
whether or not they have ever lived together, if one person is or was dependent on the
other person for assistance in his or her daily life activities because of disability, illness or
impairment.” “Daily life activities” are defined in section 7 as including “personal grooming, preparing meals, shopping for groceries, taking care of financial affairs, making appointments and arranging transportation to appointments.”

[159] Alberta, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador.

[160] See, also, the Family Violence Prevention Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 84 (Yukon).

[161] The Yukon’s Family Violence Prevention Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 84.

[162] [1994] RJQ 1947.

[163] Québec (Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse) v. Vallée. (2003) 18 CCLT (3d) 27 (Trib. des droits de la personne); Longtin v. Plouffe, [2001] RJQ 2635 (CS); Dupaul v Beaulieu, [2000] RJQ 1186 (CS); Lemire v Huppe-Lambert, JE 2004-923 (CS).

[164] See M.I. Hall “Equity and the Older Adult: The Doctrines of Unconscionability and Undue Influence” in A. Soden, ed. Advising the Older Client (Toronto: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2005).

[165] N.S. Reg. 364/2007, s. 3.

[166] The Regulations apply to facilities for children in addition to those for adults.

[167] Note that the Adult Guardianship Act (Part 3), discussed above under Adult Protection, also applies in the institutional setting.

[168] The Regulations apply to facilities for children in addition to those for adults.

[169] Note that the Adult Guardianship Act (Part 3), discussed above under Adult Protection, also applies in the institutional setting.

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