Project Overview

Regulation of AI and ADM systems has become a pressing issue in Canada and across the world.  The LCO’s Comparing European and Canadian AI Regulation report compares two leading international approaches to AI regulation.

The Government of Canada’s Directive on Automated Decision-making is the most significant initiative to directly regulate AI and automated decision-making in Canada to date. Many other Canadian governments, including the Government of Ontario, have begun to consider AI and ADM regulation as well.

The European Commission recently proposed a comprehensive set of rules to govern the use of AI and related technologies in the European Union.  This proposal is the most comprehensive and important international effort to regulate AI and related technologies to date.  The EU proposal represents a very different approach to AI regulation than the Canada ADM Directive.

In this paper, the Law Commission of Ontario and the Research Chair on Accountable Artificial Intelligence in a Global Context have come together to address the following questions:

  • How does the EU Proposal compare to the Canada ADM Directive?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach?
  • What lessons can Canadian policymakers learn from the EU approach?

The paper considers key AI regulation issues, including the definition of AI, risk assessment, bias, disclosure, oversight, and enforcement.

About the authors:

The Research Chair on Accountable Artificial Intelligence in a Global Context is led by Professor Céline Castets-Renard at the University of Ottawa, in the Civil Law Faculty. The Chair is coordinated by Eleonore Fournier-Tombs, Adjunct Professor at the University of Ottawa and data scientist. Anne-Sophie Hulin is a Post-Doctoral Researcher and Claire Boine is a Doctoral researcher within the Chair.  For further information, visit the website here:

The Law Commission of Ontario (LCO) is Ontario’s leading law reform agency.  The LCO provides independent, balanced and authoritative advice on complex and important legal policy issues.  Through this work, the LCO promotes access to justice, evidence-based law reform and public debate.  This report is part of the LCO’s ongoing AI, ADM and the Justice System project.

Project Documents