[1] Equal authorship

[2] International Labour Organization (ILO), “Towards a Policy Framework for Decent Work” (2002) 141:1-2 International Labour Review, 161.

[3] Leah F. Vosko, “‘Decent Work’: The Shifting Role of the ILO and the Struggle for Global Social Justice” (2002) 2:1 Global Social Policy, 19; and, Leah F. Vosko, Managing the Margins: Gender, Citizenship, and the International Regulation of Precarious Employment (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010).

[4] ILO, Programme on Promoting the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (Geneva: ILO, 2004).

[5] ILO, ILO Declaration on Social Justice For A Fair Globalization (Geneva: ILO, 2008).

[6] Lance Compa, “NAFTA’s Labour Side Agreement Five Years On: Progress and Prospects for the NAALC” (1999) 1:1 Can. Lab. & Emp. L.J., 1.

[7] Archives of Ontario (AO) Record Group 7-78. Initial Submission, Management by Results and Estimates, 1979/80. 12 July 1978, 6.

[8] Archives of Ontario, Record Group 7-78, Letter, John R. Scott, Director, Re: The Employment Standards Act, 1974 & The Automatic Car Wash Industry, 4 April 1975.

[9] Archives of Ontario Record Group 7-1, File 7-1-0-1532.1, box 54, Notice to Employers and Employees (1969).

[10] David Weil, “Crafting a progressive workplace regulatory policy: Why enforcement matters” (2007) 28 Comparative Labor.Law & Policy J., 125.

[11] A. Haviland, R. Burns, W. Gray, T. Ruder,  & J. Mendeloff, “What kinds of

injuries do OSHA inspections prevent?” (2010) 41 Journal of Safety Research,  339; K. Kilkon, J. Mendeloff, & W. Gray, “The role of inspection sequence in compliance with the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) standards: Interpretations and implications” (2010) 4 Regulation & Governance,  48; K. Purse, & J. Dorrian, “Deterrence and enforcement of occupational health and safety law” (2011) 27:1 The International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations,  23; and, Weil note 10.

[12] Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR) Vulnerable worker enforcement forum: Final report and government conclusions (London: Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, 2008); R. Saunders and P. Dutil,  New approaches in achieving compliance with statutory employment standards (Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks Inc. & The Institute of Public Administration of Canada,2005); P.L. Gallina, New compliance strategies: ‘Hard law’ approach, A report prepared for the Federal Labour Standards Review/Examen des Normes du Travail Federales (Ottawa: Human Resources Development Canada, 2005); National Employment Law Project (NELP) Just pay: Improving wage and hour enforcement at the United States Department of Labour (New York: National Employment Law Project, 2010); and, David Weil, Improving workplace conditions through strategic enforcement: A report to the Wage and Hour Division. (Boston, Mass.: Boston University, 2009).

[13] A. Pollert, “The Unorganised Worker: The Decline in Collectivism and New Hurdles to Individual Employment Rights” (2005) 34:3 Industrial Law Journal,  217.

[14] David Weil, “Public enforcement/private monitoring: Evaluating a new approach to regulating the minimum wage” (2005) 58:2 Industrial and Labour Relations Review,  238.

[15] See for example J. Fine  & J. Gordon, “Strengthening labor standards enforcement through partnerships with workers’ organizations” (2010)  38 Politics & Society,  552.

[16] G. Maconachie,  & M. Goodwin, “Recouping wage underpayment: Increasingly less likely?” (2006) 41:3 Australian Journal of Social Issues,  327.

[17] Gallina, note 12 and NELP note 12.

[18] Saunders & Dutil note 12. 

[19] Kent Elson, “Taking workers’ rights seriously: Private prosecutions of employment standards violations” (2008) Windsor: University of Windsor Yearbook Access to Justice, 2008)need journal citation

[20] P. Macklem, & M.Trebilcock, (2006) New labour standards compliance strategies: Corporate codes of conduct and social labeling programs. (Ottawa: Federal Labour Standards Review, 2006).

[21] T. Hardy, & J. Howe, “Partners in enforcement? The new balance between

government and trade union enforcement of employment standards in Australia” (2009) 23:3

Australian Journal of Labour Law, 306; and, Maconachie & Goodwin note 16.

[22] Hardy & Howe note 21.

[23] D. Walters, & P. James, (2011) “What motivates employers to establish preventive management arrangements within supply chains?” (2011) 49 (7), Safety Science, 988.

[24] C. Estlund, “Rebuilding the law of the workplace in an era of self-regulation” (2005) 105 (2)

Columbia Law Review, 319.

[25] Macklem & Trebilcock, note 20; and, M. Thomas, “Regulating Labour Standards in the Global Economy: Emerging Forms of Global Governance” In G. Teeple and S. McBride (eds.), Relations of Global Power: Neoliberal Order and Disorder. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011) 95.

[26] Gallina note 12 and Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR) note 12.

[27] Saunders & Dutil, note 12 and S. Tombs & D. Whyte, “A deadly consensus: Worker safety and regulatory degradation under New Labour” (2010) 50, British Journal of Criminology 46.

[28] L. Dickens, “Delivering fairer workplaces through statutory rights? Enforcing employment rights in Britain” (2009) Paper presented at the 15th World Congress of the International Industrial Relations Association, Sydney, Australia.

[29] Mark Thomas, Regulating Flexibility: The Political Economy of Employment Standards. (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2009).

[30] Archives of Ontario, “Ontario Labour Minister Elgie Presents Ministry Year-End Review,” News Release, 11 January 1982 RG 7-186.

[31] Ontario Ministry of Labour Bill 85 Amendments to the Employment Standards Act. Employment Standards Bulletin. (Toronto: Ministry of Labour, 1987).

[32] Archives of Ontario , “Labour Minister Announces the Creation of the Employee Wage Protection Program”, News Release, 11 April 1991,RG 7-186,

[33] Eaton, J. (1996) “Province shifts employment standards responsibility. Changes put onus on unions to ensure rules are applied”, Toronto Star, Monday, 2 December 1996, C3.

[34] M. Gellatly, J. Grundy, K. Mirchandani, A. Perry, M. Thomas and L.F. Vosko  “’Modernizing’ Employment Standards? Administrative Efficiency, Market Regulation, and the Production of the Illegitimate Claimant in Ontario, Canada” (2011) 22(2), Economic and Labour Relations Review, 81; and, Leah Vosko, “A New Approach to Regulating Temporary Agency Work in Ontario or Back to the Future?” (2011) 65(4), Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 632.

[35] Gellatly et el note 34.

[36] Ontario Ministry of Labour,  “Proposed Open for Business Act – What Others Are Saying”, News Release, 17 May 2010,online: http://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2010/05/proposed-open-for-business-act—what-others-are-saying.html [ accessed 10 December 2010].

[37] Ontario Ministry of Labour, “New Legislation Modernizes Ontario’s Employment Standards” News Release, 25 October 2010, online: http://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/news/bulletin_ofba.php [accessed 15 Nov 2010].
[38] Ontario Ministry of Labour, note 36.

[39] Ontario Ministry of Labour, “Employment Standards Task Force” (2010) online: http://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/es/pubs/is_estf.php, [accessed 15 Nov 2010].
[40] The administration Manual for Employment Standards (AMES) sets out procedures for the administration and enforcement of the ESA, 2000. It documents the practices and procedures established by the Director and to be followed by ESOs and other program staff, whether conducting investigations or otherwise administering or enforcing provisions of the Act.  Ontario Ministry of Labour, Administration Manual for Employment Standards (AMES), Employment Standards Program, (2010). On file with authors.

[41] Employer Workbook, Public Holiday Pay Calculator, Severance Tool, and Termination Tool. See Ontario Ministry of Labour, online: http://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/es/tools/index.php [accessed 23 August 2011]. 

[42] Ontario Ministry of Labour “Employment Standards Program Annual Report, 2009-2010” (2010). On file with authors.

[43] For example, exceptions are made for young workers, live-in caregivers, people with language barriers or a disability, workers that are afraid to contact the employer, workers with non-monetary complaints, workers approaching the 6 month time limit or when the employer has closed or gone bankrupt.

[44] Marion Lane Administration in Action: An Institutional Analysis of the Ontario Employment Standards Branch (Berkeley: University of California, 1977). On file with authors.

[45] Office of the Provincial Auditor of Ontario, 2004 Annual Report, at  239.  Online: http://www.auditor.on.ca/en/reports_en. [accessed 12 July 2011].

[46] Ontario Ministry of Labour, note 42.

[47] Gellatly et al, note 34.

[48] Ontario Ministry of Labour, note 40  Chapter 5,at 83. .

[49] Workers’ Action Centre (2007) Working on the Edge, online:  http://www.workersactioncentre.org/!docs/pb_WorkingOnTheEdge_eng.pdf (accessed July 12, 2011).

[50] Ontario Ministry of Labour, Meeting with Workers’ Action Centre & Parkdale Community Legal Services. ES Modernization Progress Update prepared by the Employment Practices Branch, (March 4, 2011). On file with authors. 

[51] Ontario Ministry of Labour, note 42.

[52] In 1996, the MOL privatized some of its collection activities. In cases where wages are not recovered through claims investigation or from the Trust Fund, collections are done by a private collection agency on contract with the Ministry.

[53] Employers seeking to appeal an Order to Pay must put the amount of monies owing into the Ministry of Labour Trust Fund to proceed at the Ontario Labour Board. These amounts are monies that workers received following the Labour Board Appeal.

[54] Ontario Ministry of Labour, note 40 at  Chapter 4 – Inspections  4.

[55] Lane at note 44.

[56]  Ontario Ministry of Labour, “New Legislation and beefed up enforcement reaches out to vulnerable workers,” 26 April 2004 Press Release. Online: http://news.ontario.ca/archive/en/2004/04/26/McGuinty-government-acts-to-protec